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Chemistry - WHS

WHS A&P Vocabulary Chemistry of Life

QuestionAnswer
atom basic unit of matter
proton positively charged subatomic particle
electron negatively charged subatomic particle; gives an element its chemical properties
neutron subatomic particle that has the same mass as a proton but no electric charge
nucleus the positively charged center of an atom
orbital a region of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is likely to be found
ion atom that has a positive or negative charge
atomic mass mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
isotope atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
radioisotope isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay
compound substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements in definite proportions
molecule smallest unit of most compounds
ionic bond bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
reactant element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
substrate reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
product a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
potential energy stored energy
kinetic energy energy of motion
activation energy minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
decomposition reaction reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products
catabolism breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones
synthesis reaction reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single compound
anabolism synthesizing a complex molecule from simpler compounds
exchange reaction reaction in which molecules are exchanged to create new products; AB + CD ---> AD + CB
reversible reaction chemical reaction in which the prodcuts re-form the original reactants
equilibrium reaction reaction that is reversible and the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal
nutrient chemical needed for the maintenance, growth, and development of the body
metabolite any chemical produced by metabolism
mixture two or more substances that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
solution homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute the dissolved substance in a solution
solvent the substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
suspension mixture of water and nondissolved materials whcih can be separated with filtration or settling
electrolyte a substance when dissolved in water conducts electric current
salt compound that conducts electricity when dissolved in water; created from the reaction of an acid and a base
inorganic compound any compound that does not contain carbon-carbon bonds
organic compound compound that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen and is found in living things
acid compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
base compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution
neutralization a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact to form a salt
hydrogen ion positively charged atom of hydrogen (H+)
hydroxide ion negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen (OH-)
pH scale measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
enzyme specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
catalyst substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
RNA single-stranded nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
DNA double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code
glycogen polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals
glucose sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells
monosaccharide single sugar molecule
polysaccharide large carbohydrate made of chains of monosaccharide molecules
glycerol with fatty acids, make up the building blocks of lipids
fatty acid with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids
nucleotide building block of a nucleic acid
amino acid basic building blocks of protein molecules
ATP provides the energy for all cellular work; product of cellular respiration
active site the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
denaturation a structural change in a protein that results in a loss of its biological properties
macromolecule very large complex molecule
polymer large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
monomer small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
nucleic acid macromolecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
lipid organic compound made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
protein organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
carbohydrate organic compound used by cells to store and release energy
buffer an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
Created by: mshunt