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sex & language

intergrative neuroscience

what type of hormone accounts for masculine phenotype? androgens
female estrus cycle can be disrupted by timely injection of what hormone? testosterone
estrus I is regulated by what brain structure? hypothalamus
estrus I is a _____ cycle lunar
pituitary secretes which 2 hormones? LH & FSH
estrogen peak is described as ______ biphasic
progesterone & estrogen are _____ _____ hormones gonadal steroid
which nucleus releases gonadatropal releasing hormone? where does it go? arcuate, posterior pituitary
GnRH projects to which region after leaving posterior pituitary? how? anterior, portal circulation
________ in anterior pituitary receive GnRH gonadotropes
gonadotropes --> ___ & ____ ---> general circulation --> ______ LH & FSH; ovaries
Ovum & surrounding follicles release large amounts of which hormone? estrogen
what are the surrounding tissues of the egg called? corpus luteum
egg & corpus luteum release which hormone? progesterone
estrogen is what type of feedback loop? describe this loop. positive, enhances release of LH
progesterone is what type of feedback loop? describe this loop. inhibitory, uses DA to shut down release of GnRH
which hormone plays a role in regulating prolactin release in breast tissue? LH
cholesterol produces which hormone? progesterone
progesterone produces which hormone? testosterone
which enzyme reacts with testosterone to produce estradiol? aromatase
which enzyme reacts with testosterone to produce dihydrotestosterone? 5a-reductase
relative activity of which 2 substances determines phenotype? aromatase & 5a-reductase
which hormone increases dendritic spines & # of synapses? estradiol
lipophilic can cross BBB
what happens after sex hormones cross BBB? they bind to cytoplasmic receptors
function of ligand-receptor complex in nucleus? gene transcription promoter
5 functions of DHT spermatogenesis, GnRH regulation, sexual differentiation, bone & muscle growth, sexual maturation
7 limbic areas with sex hormone receptors septal n., LH, VMH, anterior pituitary, MD thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala
non-limbic area with sex hormone receptors dorsal tegmentum
love shows increased activity in which brain region? basal ganglia
lust hormones estrogen, testosterone
attraction causes which physical symptoms loss of appetite & sleep, increased heart rate
4 NTs involved in attraction DA, norepinephrine, serotonin, nerve growth factor
attachment causes release of which 2 substances oxytocin & vasopressin
which hypothalamic nucleus is involved in sexual behaviors? preoptic
males have higher neuronal density in which nucleus? PVN
in the PVN, women have more ________ _______ inhibitory interneurons
which group of men have highest neuronal density in SCN? homosexuals without AIDS
homosexuals exhibit _______ hypermasculinity
describe brain plasticity during lactation higher motor & sensory functioning
male or female: higher resting CBF male
males or females show higher glucose utilization? males
which sex has better verbal skills? females
which sex has larger anterior commissure? female
which structures are larger in males? brain volume, corpus callosum, ventricle enlargement w/ aging
name left hemisphere functions speech, writing, lexical & syntactic language
name right hemisphere functions spatial abilities, prosodic aspects of language
anterior lesions affect males/females more? what are the results? females, impaired speech production
franz gall is responsible for... phrenology
which area is easier to damage, broca's or wernicke's? why? wernicke's, because it is exposed at temple
describe norman gerschwind's contribution to neuroscience? naming aphasias
roger sperry's contribution to language study split-brain studies analyzing language lateralization
auditory regions are larger in which hemisphere? left
impaired functions in broca's lesions speech production & repetition
impaired functions in wernicke's lesions sentence repetition & comprehension
conduction aphasia impaired repetition & naming of objects
global aphasia all speech functions impaired
anomic aphasia impaired naming of objects
transcortical aphasia impaired speech production & naming of objects
sensory aphasia impaired comprehension & naming of objects
3 areas involved in emotional content of speech amygdala, cingulate, hypothalamus
cranial nerves involved in speech V, VII, X, XI, XII
Created by: amberlieskye
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