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The Philosophes, The Enlightment and Religion

Who were philosophes? People who took the lead in forging the new attitudes favorable to change, championed reform, and advocated toleration.
Who were some of the most famous? Voltaire, Montesquieui, Diderot, D’Alembert, Rosseau, Hume, Gibbon, Smith, Lessing, and Kant.
What did philosophes support? They supported the expansion of trade, agriculture, transport, and the invention of manufacturing machinery.
Who was the most influential? Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
What did Voltaire believe? He believed human society could and should be improved, but he was never certain that the changes will be permanent.
What was the chief impediment to human improvement and happiness? Ecclesiastical Institutions
What did Philosophes argue? They argued that the Calvinist doctrine of predestination denied the virtuous behavior in this life could affect the fate of a person’s soul after death.
What is deism? The belief of life of religion and of reason could be combined.
What did David Hume argue? He argued in “Of Miracles” that no empirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to much of Christianity.
Baruch Spinoza's most famous work in which he drew God and nature closely together, so contemporaries condemned him? Ethnics
Moses Mendelsohn was known as the, and what did he do? “Jewish Socrates” and he established the main outlines of an assimilationist position.
How did European writers feel about Islam? They said Islam was a false religion and Muhammed was a false prophet because he had not performed miracles, and said the religion was sexually promiscuous.
Created by: Cianci