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AR Chapter 8a

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
afferent nerves transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS (brain and spinal cord); also known as sensory nerves
anesthesia absence of feeling or sensation
aneurysm dilatation of the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation
brain stem stemlike portion of the brain that collects the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord; contains the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
burr hole hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill
cerebellum located at the bottom of the brain and controls voluntary muscle movement and balance
cerebral contusion small, scattered hemorraghes in the brain; described as a "bruise" of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact
coma deep sleep in which pt cannot be aroused
craniotomy surgical incision into the crainium or skull
deficit word for any neurological abnormality
dysphasia diffuclt speech or speaking
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body (right or left)
herpes zoster infection that travels along the path of a nerve; also known as shingles
hyperesthesia excessive sensitivity to pain, stimuli, or touch
interneurons connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves (sensory nerve) to or toward motor nerves (efferent nerve)
lethargy feeling of sluggishness
medulla oblongata most essential part of the brain that controls the heart and respirations
meninges 3-layered membrane that protects the brain and spinal cord
narcolepsy sudden, uncontrolled attack of sleep
occlusion blockage
paresthesia sensation of tingling or numbness
phagocytosis process in which cells engulf or destroy waste
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg
cerebral concussion brief interruption of brain function, usually with loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) death to a part of the brain due to a decrease in blood flow; also called a stroke
epilepsy recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain
encephalitis inflammation of CNS(brain and spinal cord) caused by the bite of a mosquito or tick
Bell's palsy unilateral weakness or paralysis of the face
Alzheimer's disease deterioration of intellectual functioning
anencephaly absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progressive weakening of muscle groups
cerebral palsy permanent brain damage at birth - lack of voluntary muscle control
Guillian-Barr syndrome acute polyneuritis
grand mal seizure sudden loss of consciousness with contracting and relaxing muscles
petit mal seizure small seizure resulting in blank facial expression, some blinking lasting for only a few seconds
migraine headache vascular headache, one side of the face
Huntington's chorea patient has rapid, jerky, involuntary movement
hydrocephalus abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
meningitis bacterial infection of protective covering of CNS (brain and spinal cord)
multiple sclerosis degenerative disease caused by hardening of myelin sheath
Parkinson's disease patient has masklike facial appearance
transient ischemic attack (TIA) brief periods of reduced oxygen to the brain
autonomic nervous system regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body; two divisions: the SNS (sympathetic nervous system) and PNS (parasympathetic nervous system)
peripheral nervous system contains 12 pair of cranial and 31 pair of spinal nerves
central nervous system (CNS) nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
paraplegia paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities
sympathetic nerves regulate essential involuntary body function by increasing (fight or flight)
parasympathetic nerves regulate essential involuntary body functions by slowing (peaceful, calming)
efferent nerves transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS (brain and spinal cord)
plexus network of interwoven nerves
pineal body cone-like structure involved in our biological clock and produces melatonin; can be called a gland
cerebrum largest, uppermost part of brain responsible for consciousness, memory, sensation, emotion and voluntary movement
ataxia without muscle coordination
aura sensation felt prior to the onset of a migraine or epileptic seizure
agraphia unable to convert thoughts into writing
whiplash feeling of neck pain due to a sudden back and forth jerking movement
axon part of the nerve cell that transports impulses
neuroglia supporting tissue of the nervous system
neuralgia sharp, spasm like pain of the nerves
nerve block elimination of sensation to an area supplied by nerves
aphasia inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain
bradykinesia abnormally slow movement
palliative soothing
dendrite part of a neuron that receives an impulse
myelin sheath part of the neuron that speeds up the impulse on the axon
synapse space where the impulse jumps from neuron to neuron
neuron a nerve cell
syncope fainting
Romberg test test for equilibrium
carpal tunnel syndrome pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons; occurs due to repetition and overuse
neurologist physician who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system
neurology study of the nervous system and its disorders
neurosurgeon physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
neurosurgery surgery involving the nervous system
Created by: maxphia32