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Resjpiratory System

Anatomy & Physiology

Inspiratory center one of the two most important control centers located in the medulla; the other is the Expiratory center
Chemoreceptors located in the carotid and aortic bodies. they are specialized receptors that are sensitive to increases in blood carbon dioxide level and decreases in oxygen level
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Respiratory arrest cessation of breathing without resumption
Eupnea Normal respiration
Hypoventilation slow and shallow respirations
Pulmonary stretch receptors specialized stretch receptors in lungs are located throughout the pulmonary airways and in the alveoli. Nerve inpulses generate by these receptors influence the normal pattern of breathing and protect the respiratory system from excess stretching caused
hyperventilation very rapid, deep respirations
apnea temporary cessaton of breathing
Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR) Pattern of breathing associated with critical conditions such as brain injury or drug overdose and characterized by cycles of apnea and hyperventilation
Pharynx otgan of the digestive and respiratory systems; commonly called the throat
Bronchi branches of the trachea
Alveoli microscopic saclike dilations of terminal bronchioles
bronchioles small branch of a bronchus
Respiratory mucosa mucus-covered membrane that lines the tubes of the respiratory tree
Respiratory membrane the single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the alveoli
lung orgn of respiration; the right lung has three lobes the left lung has two lobes
trachea the windpipe; the tube ectending from the larynx t the bronchi
pleura the serous membrane in the thoracic cavity; covers the outerserface of the rib cage
larynx the voice box located just below the pharynx; the largest piece of cartilage making up the larynx is the thyroid cartilage commonly known ad the Adams apple
epistaxis clinical term referring to a bloody nose
rhinitis inflammmation of the nosal mucosa often caused by nasal infections "Viruses"
Allergic rhinitis sensitivity type reactions to many types of nasl irritants and airborne allergens "Hay Fever" * animal dander, pollen
Croup non-life threatiening type of laryngitis generally seen in children under age 3; has a "harsh bark-like" cough and labored inspiration caused by parainfluenza viruses
Pleurisy inflammation of the parietal pleura, difficulty breathing with stabbing pain associate with the constant rubbing back and forth of the visceral and pariental pleura during breathing can be caused by tumors or infections
Auditory tubs tube that connects the throat with the middle ear; also called the Eustachian tubes
Eustchian tube tub extentding from inside the ear to the throat to equalize air pressure; also called the auditory tube
Diaphram dome shaped muscle separating the abdomen cavity from the thoracic cavity; major muscle of respiration
Cellular respiration Enzymes in the mitochondrial wall and matrix using oxygen to break down glucose and other nutrients to release energy needed for cellular work
deviated septum abnormal condition in which the nasal septum is far from its normal position, possibly obstructing normal nasal breathing
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) any infection localized in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract (nose, pharynx and larynx)
laryngitis inflammation of the mucous lining of the larynx, voice box
Pulmonary ventilation the process that moves air into and out of the lungs. "Breathing"
External Respiration the exchange of gases between air in lungs and the blood
Internal Respiration The exchange of gases that occurs between the blood and cells of the body
Vital Capacity Largest amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in one expiration
Residual volume the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above a normal respiration
Expiratory reserve volume(ERV) The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after expiring the tidal volume (TV)
Tidal volume The amount of air breathed in and out with each breath
Epiglottis lid-like carilage overhanging the entrance to the larynx
Created by: ivablake