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Reproductive System

A&P final review - reproductive system

CVS chorionic villus sampling takes sample of tissue from placenta for prenatal genetic diagnosis
AFP alpha-fetoprotein (high levels of amniotic fluid of fetus or maternal serum indicate increased risk of neurologic birth defects in the infant)
PMS premenstrual syndrome
Estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics
Fetal ultrasonography high frequency sound waves are used to create an image of the internal structures
Amniocentesis A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus.
Gonads reproductive glands male- testes female- ovaries
Progesterone hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
EFM Electronic Fetal Monitoring
Karyotype A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
Corpus luteum Yellow glandular mass (corpus) formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum. It secretes progesterone to maintain pregnancy.
Endometrium the mucous membrane that lines the inner wall of the uterus
IVF In Vitro Fertilization. Eggs (ova) are removed from the ovary laproscopically and placed in a culture dish. The eggs are fertilized with a sperm sample from the father or donor male.
EP ectopic pregnancy
LH Lutenizing Hormone stimulates androgen synthesis in proliferative phase and progesterone synthesis in secretory phase
myometrium the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin a hormone secreted by the trophoblast cells of a developing embryo that prolongs the life of the corpus luteum, and thus increases the duration and amount of secreted progesterone.
STD sexually transmitted disease
FSH Follicle stimulating homorne anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates gamete production in the gonads
Perimetrium outer thin layer that covers the surface of the uterus
Location and function of seminal vesicles The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms' motility (ability to
Location and function of prostate gland The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries t
Location and function of cowpers glands The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper's glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate t
Menstrual phase the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the lining of the uterus is shed (the first day of menstrual flow is considered day 1 of the menstrual cycle)
Proliferative phase Phase of the menstrual cycle that begins around day 3 when follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from the anterior pituitary gland begins to increase and ovulation happens at the end of this phase.
Secretory phase the portion of the uterine cycle when the endometrium continues to thicken, becomes more vascularized, and develops glands that secrete a fluid rich in glycogen
Where does fertilization occur? upper 1/3 of the fallopian tube
When does implantation occur? 5-7 days after fertilization
When is the embryo completely embedded in the endometrium? 12 days after fertilization
Difference between mitosis and meiosis mitosis results in 2 genetically identical diploid cells, meiosis results in 4 genetically different haploid cells
Phases of mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (Pretty Men Are Tough)
Phases of meiosis? Interphase, prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2.
Interphase the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
Metaphase second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Telophase the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
Created by: megzm801