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intergrative neuroscience

describe fear conditioning fearful memories are permanent, therefore the response to them must be modified rather than the memory itself
pyramidal/extrapyramidal: lesion to which will result in lack of ability to produce an unconscious smile extrapyramidal
extrapyramidal lesion produces _____ smile duchenne
which 4 structures form the HHPA axis? hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal
what does the HHPA axis regulate? hormonal stress responses
HHPA axis is what type of loop? inhibitory feedback loop
hippocampus communicates via which NT? glutamate
which nucleus does the hippocampus excite in the hypothalamus? paraventricular
describe behavior of paraventricular neurons after excitation they do not synapse with other neurons, but send axons to neural lobe of posterior pituitary
what substance does the neural lobe secrete? corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
where does the posterior pituitary project? corticotropes of anterior pituitary
what does the anterior pituitary secrete? ACTH
where does ACTH project? enters general circulation until reaching fasciculate cells of adrenal cortex
adrenal cortex secretes _______ corticosteroids
corticosteroids can cross... blood-brain barrier
3 functions of corticosteroids immune suppression, increase blood pressure/heart rate, increase catabolism
function of corticosteroids in HHPA axis inhibits function of hippocampus, stopping stress response
when is peak release of cortisol? roughly 30 mins after stressful event
how long does it take to complete the feedback loop? about an hour
the PVN and pituitary form the... pituitary portal circulation
what is the interior adrenal called? medulla
the glomelular layer of the adrenal cortex is sensitive to what substance? angiotensin II
what does the glomelular layer of the adrenal cortex release aldosterone
aldosterone is known as a... mineralo-corticoid
the fascicular zone of the adrenal ctx is sensitive to what substance? ACTH
fasciculata of adrenal ctx releases what substance? gluco-corticoids
what does the medulla release? adrenaline
function of macrophages in immune system phagocytosis
what is released by macrophages? interleukens
function of interleukens stimulate release of CRF in posterior pituitary
what inhibits lymphocytes cortisol
lymphocytes are a source of... ACTH
3 disorders mediates by biogenic amines schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder
which 2 substances decrease with age? catecholamines, serotonin
hypothalamus is intimately involved in regulation of which 2 functions? ANS & stress responses
VTA has _____ properties pedonic
how does the VTA project to the forebrain? via the median forebrain bundle
4 parts of hypothalamic limbic system mammilary bodies, PVN, LH, VMH
2 basal forebrain aspects of limbic system n. accumbens & septal n.
the septal n. is a major source of what NT? ACh
2 fiber pathways of limbic system fornix & stria terminalis
2 limbic nuclei MD & anterior thalamic
3 cortices of limbic system cingulate, medial temporal lobe, prefrontal
2 brain structures of limbic system hypothalamus, amygdala
describe motor/sensory inputs/outputs of medial cortical limbic lobes no direct motor output or direct sensory input, except olfactory
describe, in general, the connections of the hippocampus & amygdala they are curved, taking longest possible routes, rather than direct
describe negative feedback loop of immune system lymphocytes are inhibited by cortisol, but release ACTH that triggers release of cortisol... the immune system further inhibition of itself
pathway of pyramidal cells in hippocampus (4 steps) CA3 > CA1 > subiculum > entorhinal ctx
pathway of pyramidal cells in amygdala (3 steps) lateral n. → basolateral n. → central n
Created by: amberlieskye
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