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A&P Muscles Theory

Human A&P Muscle Theory Vocabulary

epimysium fibrous covering of who muscle
Perimysium Fibrous covering of fascile. a fascile is a small bundle of muscle fibers covered by the perimysium.
Endomysium Fibrous covering of a single muscle cell (also called a muscle fiber)
Sarcolemma muscle cell membrane
Sarcoplasm muscle cell cytoplasm
sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) ( specialized form of smooth ER
Transverse tubules (T tubules) provide a series of tunnels through the sarcoplasm that play a major role in coordinating the contraction of a muscle fiber. The transverse tubules conduct the electrical impulses.
Myofibrils contraction organelle made up of bundles of thick and thin myofilaments.
Myosin thick filaments are made up of the protein myosin
actin thin filaments are made up of the protein actin.
Sarcomeres repeating structural and functional unit of a muscle fiber.
Summation addition of twitch tension when a stimulus is applied before tension has completely relaxed
Incomplete tetanus tension peaks and falls repeatedly and builds up beyond twitch tension.
Complete tetanus tension is steady (no relaxation phase) and largest if stimuli arrive at very high rates
Motor unit a motor neuron and all the muscle cells it controls
recruitment to increase muscle tension by activating more motor units
Muscle tone tension in a "resting" muscle produced by a low level of spontaneous motor neuron activity
Muscle fatigue when a muscle loses the ability to contract due to a low pH (lactic acid buildup), low ATP levels, or other problems
recovery period time after muscle activity that it takes to restore pre- exertion conditions.
oxygen debt amont of excess oxygen used during the recovery period
Fast fibers large diameter, abundant myofibrils, ample glycogen, scant mitochondria. produce powerful, brief contractions
slow fibers smaller diameter, rich capillary supply, many mitochondria, much myoglobin. Produce slow steady contractions
Myoglobin a globular protein found in slow fibers that is similar to hemoglobin. Myoglobin binds to oxygen
Anaerobic endurance time over which a muscle can contract effectively under anerobic conditions (when oxygen is not present of present in only small amounts).
Hypertrophy increase in muscle bulk. can result from aerobic training
Z lines Anchor for thin filaments
M line extends through the Z lines to the end of the thick filament to keep both thick and thin filaments in alignment
A Band areas containing thick filaments
I Bands areas containing thin filaments
Calcium the key that unlocks active sites and starts a muscle contraction
Muscle tension the pulling force on the tendons that muscle cells generate when contracting
Muscle Twitch a brief contraction-relaxation response to a single action potential (or nerve impulse)
Aerobic endurance time over which a muscle can contract supported by mitochondria, which is producing ATP
Atrophy a wasting away of muscles
Created by: brandon_kyle10



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