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intergrative neuroscience

how long are infradian cycles? more than a day
how long are circadian cycles? about a day
how long are untradian cycles? less than a day
4 examples of untradian cycles feeding, respiration, heart rate, nerve impulse discharge
4 examples of circadian cycles sleeping/waking, body temp, body electrolytes, some hormones
4 examples of infradian cycles lifespan, menstrual cycle, seasonal variations, development & aging
awake with eyes open produces what type of EEG waves? beta
awake with eyes closed produces what type of EEG waves? alpha
what percent of the sleep cycle is spent in stage 1? 4-5%
describe stage 1 sleep light, muscle activity slows, occasional muscle twitching
what percent of the sleep cycle is spent in stage 2? 45-55%
what percent of the sleep cycle is spent in stage 3? 4-5%
what percent of the sleep cycle is spent in stage 4? 12-15%
what percent of the sleep cycle is spent in stage 5? 20-25%
describe stage 2 sleep breathing pattern & heart rate slows, slight decrease in body temp
at what stage does deep sleep begin? 3
which 2 stages of sleep are referred to as the sleep spindle? 2 & 3
stage 4 of the sleep cycle is known as... slow wave sleep
stage 4 produces which type of EEG waves? delta (high amplitude)
which sleep stage is characterized by very deep, rhythmic breathing and limited muscle activity? 4
stage 5 of the sleep cycle is known as... REM/ paradoxical sleep
describe EEG waves of stage 5 sleep low frequency, they look like that of someone who is awake
describe stage 5 sleep  rapid eye movement, brainwaves speed up, muscles relax, heart rate increase, breathing is rapid & shallow
during which stage does the brain begin to produce slow delta waves? 3
during which stage does dreaming occur? 5
when is the lowest level of energy consumption during the sleep/wake cycle? SWS, non-REM sleep
sleep allows us to build up cellular stores of... ATP
which nuclei are responsible for inhibiting muscle activity during REM sleep? pedunculopontine
location of pedunculopontine nuclei reticular formation
function of pedunculopontine nuclei activate sensory thalamic nuclei & Renshaw cells in spinal cord
memory is affected by lack of which type of sleep? REM
which 2 stages of the sleep/wake cycle are low voltage & mixed frequency? 1 & 5
during which stage are sleep spindles & K complexes found? 2
stage 3 sleep has mostly ____ voltages slow
describe oral melatonin's effect on the normal sleep cycle it can be disruptive
when does peak melatonin production occur? several hours after being asleep, when body temperature is lowest
HAB projects to which gland? pineal
PVN helps regulate _____ behavior feeding
HAB is involved in _____ secretion melatonin
which 2 cortices are inactivated during REM sleep dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior cingulate
which 4 structures are activated during REM sleep? amygdala, pontine tegmentum, anterior cingulate ctx, parahippocampal gyrus
caffeine blocks what type of receptors? adenosine
adenosine comes from metabolism of... ATP
GABA & galanin lead to decreased production of which 2 substances? hypocretin, histamine
which area has a large # of adenosine receptors? VLH
what happens to rats injected with PCPA? rapid loss of serotonin, immediately lose ability to sleep
the elderly get less of which 2 stages of sleep? SWS & REM
consequence of short-term sleep deprivation REM rebound
describe sleep deprivation's affect on body weight & food intake food intake increases, body weight decreases
how long can someone live without sleep? death occurs around day 28 in experimental subjects
orexin is involved in maintaining ____ ______ body weight
why does body weight decrease while food intake increases in sleep deprived subjects? body is unable to maintain body temp, thereby inhibiting the ability to maintain body metabolism
describe body temp of insomniacs their lowest body temp during the night is equal to the highest body temp of a normal sleeper
insomnia suggests problems with which 3 structures? habenula, hypothalamus, pineal gland
how do sleeping pills effect patients immediately sfter starting treatment? normal REM sleep, disrupted SWS
describe sleep cycles of chronic sleeping pill users REM & SWS are absent
what happens when someone discontinues use of sleeping pills? major REM rebound, then increase in SWS
describe obstructive sleep apnea virtually no REM/SWS sleep because every time they fall asleep, their airway closes and they must either wakeup of suffocate
what is the treatment for obstructive sleep apnea? CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure keeps airway open with face mask
describe narcolepsy wakefulness, sudden drop into SWS
what causes narcolepsy? deficient or dysfunctional tubular mamillary neurons
define somnambulism sleep-walking/talking/sex/driving
when does somnambulism occur? SWS
somnabulism is what type of problem? moto-cortical
4 circadian rhthym sleep disorders delayed sleep phase, advanced sleep phase, non-24 hour sleep wake syndrome, situational circadian rhythm disorder
delayed sleep phase disorder sleep later every day
advance sleep phase disorder sleep earlier every day
non-24 hour sleep wake syndrome short/long circadian rhythm
situational circadian rhythm disorder shift work disorder, changing circadian rhythm
2 psychological sleep disorders night terrors, somniphobia
night terrors abrupt terrified/agitated awakening from sleep
somniphobia fear/dread of sleeping
hypopnea abnormally shallow breathing or slow respiratory rate while sleeping
parasomnia disruptive inappropriate actions during sleep
bruxism teeth clenching/grinding
periodic limb movement disorder involuntary movement of arms/legs
restless leg syndrome irresistible urge to move legs
Created by: amberlieskye
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