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A&P II: Heart&Blood

Mod 4

cardiac output = Heart rate/minute x mL/beat
stroke volume = mL/beat or EDV - ESV
cardiac output amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute average 75/minute
stroke volume amount of blood pumped by each ventricle with each heartbeat average 70 mL/beat
end diastolic volume amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole (relaxation)
end stroke volume amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of systole (contraction)
stroke volume = EDV - ESV
How does a drop in BP affect the heart rate? low BP Increases stroke volume (SNS)
How does a drop in blood volume affect the heart rate? low blood volume Increases stroke volume (SNS)
How does fright affect the heart rate? Increases stroke volume (SNS)
How does a crisis averted affect the heart rate? Decreases stroke volume (PNS)
composed of cardiac muscle tissue myocardium
visceral pericardium, simple squamous epithelium epicardium
smooth inner lining of the heart, simple squamous epithelium endocardium
another name for epicardium visceral pericardium
form a double layer sac around the heart visceral and fibrous pericardium
serous membrane of the heart (two) visceral and parietal pericardium
fibrous connective tissue attached to diaphragm and base of great vessels fibrous pericardium
forms pericardial cavity filled with percardial fluid acting as a lubricant during heart contraction visceral and parietal pericardium
the left ventricle pumps to the systemic circulation through the aorta
the right ventricle pumps pulmonary circulation through the pulmonary trunk
blood returning from the systemic circulation enters the right side
blood returning from the pulmonary circulation enters the left side
pulmonary trunk exits this chamber right ventricle
vena cavae enter this chamber right atrium
tricuspid valve connects these chambers right atrium and right ventricle
bicuspid valve conects these chambers left atrium and left ventricle
aorta exits this chamber left ventricle
pulmonary veins enter this chamber left atrium
form pump for pulmonary circulation right ventricle
form pump for systemic circulation left ventricle
general function of valves of the heart prevent backflow
where is the aortic semilunar valve left ventricle
where is the pulmonary semilunar valve right ventricle
how is the structure of the atrioventricular valve different from the semilunar valve semilunar is more like a pocket
blood vessels supplying the heart muscle coronary arteries
vein returning blood from the heart wall coronary sinus
where are the coronary arteries located coronary sulcus on the posterior surface of the heart
where does blood from the coronary arteries go? right atrium
cardiac muscle innervation ANS
skeletal muscle innervation SNS
cardiac muscle stimulus for contraction autorhythmic neuron
skeletal muscle stimulus for contraction somatic neuron
made of desmosomes and gap junctions intercalated discs
allow muscle potentials to conduct from one muscle fiber to neighbor (no chemical neurotransmitters) gap junction
holds muscle fibers together desmosomes
action potential is longer/shorter for cardiac muscle than skeletal muscle longer
ions involved in cardiac muscle depolarization Na+ and Ca2+
what ion maintains depolarization so cardiac muscle can relax Ca2+
what are 2 sources for cardiac muscle Ca2+ ISF and SR
what is one source for skeletal muscle Ca+ SR
tetanus can/cannot happen in cardiac muscle cannot
another contraction can/can't happen until relaxation of the heart muscle can't
True/False: autorhythmic fibers form a conduction system of the skeletal muscle False
sinoatrial node is also known as the ________ of the heart pacemaker
True/False: the pacemaker potential is spontaneous depolarization True
True/False: an action potential starts in the AV node of the heart False
True/False: AP - SA node - AV node - AV bundle - Bundle Branches - Purkinje fibers True
what fibers surround the apex of the heart causing contraction of the ventricles Purkinje fibers
what part of the conduction system serves as the pacemaker SA node
what is the only electrical connection between the atrial and ventricular muscle masses AV bundle
True/False: electrical conduction through the AV node is fast Fast
True/False: slow conduction thru the AV node give ventricles time to finish filling before contracting True
Rapid conduction of Purkinje fibers affects blood pressure and coordination
any abnormality in the rhythm of the heart (too fast or too slow) is called arrhythmia
phase of contraction of the heart muscle, especially the ventricles systole
phase of relaxation of the heart muscle, especially the ventricles diastole
True/False: during diastole, both the atria and ventricles relax True
During diastole blood is flowing from the _______into the atria. veins
During diastole, blood is flowing from the atria into the ______. ventricles
Atrial systole is intiated by SA node causes depolarization
Atrial systole is preceded by the _______ wave of the EKG. P
The atria contract/relax during atrial systole. contract
During atrial systole, blood flows from the ______ to the ventricles. atria
Ventricular systole is preceded by the ________ wave of the EKG. QRS
What is the advantage of atrial systole? more time for ventricular filling = more efficient filling
this is occurs for a brief moment before the SL valves open and the AV valves are closed isovolumetric contraction
this occurs for a brief moment before the AV valves open and the SL valves are closed isovolumetric relaxation
AV valves close ventricular pressure is greater/lesser than atrial pressure greater
SL valves close when ventricular pressure is greater/lesser than aortic pressure lesser
the volume remaining in each ventricle at the end of systole, about 60 mL ESV
the volume remaining in each ventricle at the end of diastole EDV
the amount of blood leaving the heart during systole (SV/EDV x 100 = EF) ejection fraction
diastole is known as the pumping/filling stage of the cardiac cycle filling
During what event(s) are the AV valves open and SL valves closed? ventricular diastole and atrial systole
At the beginning of ventricular systole, which valves open and which valves close? SL open and AV close
At the beginning of atrial systole, which valves open and which valves close? AV open and SL close
If you hear an abnormal first heart sound, which valves would it be? AV valve during ventricular systole
In a heart murmur, valves do not completely ________. close
The second heart sound is due to the _______ closing during ventricular diastole. SL valves
Name this rule: The greater the stretch of the heart muscle, the greater the contraction. Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
the volume of blood returning to the ventricles via the atria via the veins venous return
more venous return = more blood = better ventricular filling = greater EDV greater stroke volume
substances that increase or decrease contractility inotropic effect
every other factor other than preload on the strength of contraction contractility
the vasopressure that must be overcome before an SL valve can open afterload
increased afterload equals decreased stroke volume
"filling stage": proportional to EDV, the degree of stretch before the heart contracts preload
The SA node does/does not require outside stimulation to initiate a heartbeat. does not
Rate of SA node firing can be modified by two factors: ANS and _______. hormones
SNS stimulation increases heart rate
PNS stimulation decreases heart rate
How does the hormone epinephrine affect heart rate? increases frequency
An abnormally rapid heart rate causes less ventricular filling time, causes decreased EDV, causes decreased SV
cardiac control centers are located in the ____________ of the brain medulla oblongata
SNS post-ganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
PNS post-ganglionic axons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
increase the firing of the SA node SNS
decrease the firing of the SA node PNS
PNS ______ is responsible for slowing the heart rate down vagal tone
PNS is associated with the vagus nerve
When SNS releases something that increases the stroke volume, it is called a positive inotropic effect
PNS causes a decrease in cardiac output
only blood vessel layer of capillary walls, direct contact with lumen, simple squamous epithelium tunica intima
tunica intima AKA endothelium
blood vessel layer contains smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue tunica media
blood vessel layer consists of fibrous connective tissue tunica externa
smallest artery; greatest proportion of smooth muscle; "resistance vessels" arterioles
vessels with intercellular clefts for exchange between plasma & ISF capillaries
vessels with valves that act as a "volume reservoir" for blood veins
capillaries consist of simple __________ epithelium squamous
arterioles are/are not capable of significant vasoconstriction and vasodilation are
smallest vein venule
most capillaries plasma membranes of ________ cells that form a continuous tube epithelial
capillaries with small pores in the plasma membrane fenestrated
wide & winding capillaries containing specialized lining cells & intercellular clefts sinusoids
hydrostatic (fluid) pressure exerting blood on the walls of a blood vessel blood pressure
The driving ____ for blood flow is BP generated by contracting ventricles & maintained by stretch & recoil of artery walls. force
blood pressure refers to the BP in arteries in _________ circulation systemic
blood pressure increases, ________ increases blood flow
Blood flow is driven by the blood pressure gradient, but it is opposed by vascular resistance
The force exerted by blood on arterial walls during ventricular contraction is systolic blood pressure
The force exerted by blood on arterial walls during ventricular relaxation is diastolic blood pressure
The average BP in the arteries MAP
MAP mean arterial blood pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure pulse pressure
a traveling pressure wave of alternating expansion & recoil of elastic arteries pulse
2 factors to vascular resistance: vessel lumen diameter and vessel ________ length
2 factors to peripheral resistance: vascular resistance and blood ________ viscosity
most important variable of peripheral resistance diameter of lumen
diameter of lumen of arterioles is the most/least significant factor of PR most
widening of vessel diameter due to smooth muscle relaxation vasodilation
narrowing of vessel diameter due to smooth muscle contraction vasocontraction
Systemic changes are ________ body changes. whole
Systemic blood pressure is generally regulated by: SNS & hormones
Changes in arterioles and pre-capillary sphincters supplying a specific tissue regulates flow to individual capillary beds. autoregulation
Autoregulation is regulated by local ________ factors. metabolic
Arteriole diameter is regulated by the ________ nervous system. sympathetic
Arterioles are slightly constricted constantly by constant discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. vasomotortone
center in the medulla oblongata which regulates vasoconstriction and vasodilation vasomotor
in medulla oblongata: vasomotor, cardioaccelerator, & cardioinhibitory centers make up the cardiovascular center
Autoregulation is influenced by local metabolic factors and heat
ephinephrine dilates coronary vessels
norepinephrine causes/prevents vasoconstriction causes
which blood components cannot normally exit capillaries? proteins & RBC's
4 structures of capillaries promote ISF/plasma exchange: thin membranes, endothelial cells, pinocytic cells, and intercellular clefts
movement of dissolved molecules in response to concentration gradient diffusion
molecules that diffuse across capillary walls include, CO2, glucose, some hormones and O2
large lipids & lipid soluble molecules transfer to capillaries via pinocytic vescicles called transcytosis
movement of water and small molecules in response to a pressure gradient is called bulk flow
bulk flow is an important factor in maintaining the balance of ___ in blood & ISF water
bulk flow occurs by filtration and reabsorption
Direction of bulk flow across capillary walls is determined by _____ across the wall. net pressure gradient
Blood hydrostatic pressure within the capillary favors flow _____ of the capillary. out
Blood colloidal osmotic pressure or osmotic draw favors flow into/out of the capillary. into
Blood is hypertonic/hypotonic to the ISF because of proteins hypertonic
water travels to the greater concentration of solute due to osmosis
hydrostatic pressure causing fluid flow in & osmotic pressure causing fluid flow out of capillaries is also known as Starling's law of the capillaries
lower than normal concentration of plasma proteins leads to increased ISF & decreased blood volume
increased capillary pressure due to poor venous return leads to increased ISF & decreased BV
blockage of lymphatic circulation leads to lower blood volume and higher ISF
structure that prevents backflow of blood within most veins venous valve
contraction of skeletal muscle compresses the vein slowing and reducing venous return
venodilation increases venous return
venoconstriction decreases _________ return venous
Mean Arteriole Pressure equals Cardiac Output times ________. Peripheral Resistance
Either Cardiac Output or Peripheral Resistance or both homeostatically regulate arterial blood pressure
Homeostatic regulation of arterial pressure is accomplished through the baroreceptor reflex
baroreceptor reflex receptors detect stretch in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinus
the integration center for the baroreceptor reflex is located in the cardiovascular center of the medulla oblongata
The efferent pathway for the baroreceptor reflex if along the ANS and motor neurons.
The effectors for this reflex are the myocardium and _______ of arterioles & veins. smooth muscle
Arterioles dilate to correct ______ blood pressure. high
Heart rate increases to correct _______ blood pressure. low
_________ resistance increases to correct blood pressure. Peripheral
Stroke ________ decreases to correct high blood pressure. volume
Veins constrict/dilate to correct low blood pressure. constrict
Cardiac _____ decreases to correct high blood pressure. output
Created by: MKC



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