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Urinary System

Kidney functions FILTER blood & remove wastes, Regulate blood VOLUME Secrete renin- regulating PRESSURE, Regulate OSMOLARITY of the body fluids, Stimulate RBC production (via EPO), Regulate ACID-BASE balance
Nitrogenous wastes AMMONIA (from protein catabolism, very toxic), UREA formation (Ammonia converted to urea in liver, less toxic), URIC ACID (product of nucleic acid catabolism), CREATINE (product of creatine phosphate catabolism)
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) expression of the level of nitrogenous waste in the blood
4 body systems carrying out excretion respiratory (CO2), integumentary (sweating), digestive, URINARY (many metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H+ and water)
nephron = series of tubes that take filtration product of blood --> urine; filtration @ glomerulus; fluid runs through tubules fluid; 2 capillary beds (afferent arteriole-> GLOMERULUS; efferent arteriole leaving glomerolus -> PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES ->venule
renal corpuscle contains.... glomerulus, glomerulus (Bowman's) capsule;
renal tubule.... fluid flows through tubule system; PROXIMAL convoluted tubule: PCT (closest to glomerulus), NEPHRON LOOP (loop of Henle: descending & ascending limb), DISTAL convoluted tubule, COLLECTING DUCT
urine production steps 1. FILTRATION @ glomerulus 2. TUBULE system (PCT --> DCT) reabsorption (removal of something from FILTRATE --> BLOOD, saves from being urine), secretion (add from blood to urine) 3. water conservation
Renal Corpuscle: Anatomy At glomerulus, blood FILTERED; Filtrate passes through the ‘filtration membrane’ 1. Fenestrated capillary (porous) 2. Basement membrane (extracellular matrix) 3. Filtration slits of podocytes (capsules wrapping around capillaries of glomerulus, FEET)
Renal corpuscle: Blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP) pressure within the capillary; force that fluid exerts on capillary walls; MAJOR driving force of pressure--> compete against COP & CP
Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) Pressure due to high osmolarity of blood; colloids= proteins: too big to pass through filtration membrane;
capsullar pressure The pressure within the glomerular capsule; small pressure
Why is Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) important? The greater the NFP, the MORE FILTRATE is produced; Rate of flow affects efficiency of tubular REABSORPTION and SECRETION
Regulation of Glomerular Filtration 1. Renal autoregulation 2. Sympathetic control 3. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone mechanism
Glomerular filtration rate too high.... not enough REABSORPTION bc flows by too fast --> doesn't reclaim enough glucose
Renal autoregulation: myogenic mechanism 1. myogenic mechanism (related to muscle): afferent arteriole STRETCHED when blood pressure HIGH --> arteriole CONSTRICTS to LOWER pressure & GFR; helps maintain constant Net Filtration Pressure
Created by: kpan