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Immune System

Innate (non-specific) defenses non-specific, born w/ them: 1st line of defenses= surface barriers (skin, mucous membranes); 2nd line= internal defenses (phagocytes, fever, NK cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation)
Adaptive (specific) defenses more commonly associated, respond to SPECIFIC entities in body; 3rd line of defenses= Humoral immunity (B cells)- through fluids, Cellular immunity (T cells)- through cell-to-cell contact
surface barriers: skin keratinized stratified epithelium secretions (acid mantle, dermicidin)- enzymes that combat bacteria
surface barriers: mucous membranes acid (stomach), mucus, lysozyme (bacteria get stuck)
surface barriers: beyond epithelium Hyaluronic acid: viscous component of ECM (extracellular membrane)
internal defenses: phagocytes Macrophages, Neutrophils, Eosinophils engulf pathogens
internal defenses: basophils, mast cells Histamine: vasodilator (more blood to site of injury), Leukotrienes: attract leukocytes Heparin: anticoagulant
internal defenses: fever Mediated by pyrogens (signal that reset "thermostat"), Metabolic rate increases w/ higher temp, Spleen and Liver sequester iron & zinc needed for bacterial cell division
internal defenses: NK cells Non-selective lymphocytes that destroy cancerous or infected cells
internal defenses: antimicrobial proteins- interferons Interferons: newly infected cells send warning message to neighbors; interferes w/ virus infection but does not KILL virus; protects neighboring cells by degrading mRNA (blocks protein replication)
internal defenses: antimicrobial proteins- complement Complement: 1. job= Lyse bacteria 2. “label” bacteria for destruction 3. Enhance inflammatory response
internal defenses: inflammation Tissue injury --> release of chemical mediators of tissue repair and WBC recruitment
hallmarks of inflammation Heat, Redness, Swelling, Pain
adaptive defenses: characteristics Specificity, Systemic, Memory
humoral immunity B lymphocytes release antibodies to the blood --> bind to antigens (foreign substance generating immune response)
cellular immunity T lymphocytes bind antigens and themselves attack cells
forms of immunity natural active, natural passive, artificial active, artificial passive immunity
natural active immunity Production of one’s own antibodies or T cells as a result of infection or natural exposure to antigen
natural passive immunity Temporary immunity that results from antibodies produced by ANOTHER PERSON, ex: Fetus/newborn acquires antibodies from mother through placenta/milk
artificial active immunity Production of one’s own antibodies/ T cells as a result of VACCINATION against disease; Vaccine: consists of dead pathogens that stimulate the immune response (keep from developing disease bc body already seen antigen)
artificial passive immunity Temporary immunity that results from the INJECTION of serum (antibodies) from ANOTHER PERSON or ANIMAL; ex: Treatment for snakebite, botulism, rabies, tetanus, and other diseases
adaptive immune system: cells LYMPHOCYTES (B cells, T cells): Have to have ability to recognize antigens (competent), Self-tolerant to avoid attacking itself (own body), Each is UNIQUE (different antigen receptors)
lymphocyte production “Born” in the red bone marrow, Descendant of the pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs), During fetal development- B cells remain in BONE MARROW & T cells migrate to THYMUS; Lymphocytes colonize bone marrow --> travel in the blood and into the body’s tissues
Antigen Presenting Cells required by B & T cells to recognize ANTIGEN; =macrophages, B-cells, reticular cells (in lymphatic tissue), dendritic cells
4 types of T-cells Cytotoxic T cells (kill cell), Helper T cells (Help promote TC cell & B cell action), Regulatory T (limit immune response), Memory T cell (memory for immunity; descend from cytotoxic t)
cytotoxic t-cell process binds to antigen-presenting cell (APC) w/ exact RECEPTOR --> t-cell undergoes cell division --> pluck out receptor that matches antigen, duplicate over and over --> many t-cells all w/ receptors go out into body to FIND ANTIGEN --> destroy
helper t-cells also bind to antigen --> reproduce, make memory cells; work together w/ NK, B, T cells (work only when helper t cells also activated)
humoral immunity A more indirect method of defense than cellular immunity; B cells produce antibodies --> bind to antigens, tag for destruction by other means; recognition, attack, memory Variable regions of antibodies get variability from SOMATIC RECOMBINATION
humoral immune response antigen RECOGNITION, antigen PRESENTATION (helper t cell binds to b cell), DIFFERENTIATION (some cells of clone become memory cells, most become plasma cells), ATTACK (plasma cells secrete antibody)
Primary & secondary response primary response: takes a while (5 days) to respond to antigen (to run into antibody); antibodies build up to fight antigens, next time much QUICKER & ROBUST response
Created by: kpan



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