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intergrative neuroscience

osmoreceptors & neuropeptides that control osmoregulation are released in what part of the brain? hypothalamus
describe the anatomical approach for studying brain-behavioral relations invasive, involves tearing the brain apart post-mortem
what are spatial target lesions used for? to infer function of specific brain region
cellular target lesions allows for more specific... removal of neurons
describe excitotoxic cellular target lesions high levels of excitatory NTs to provoke apoptosis
3 types of electrical stimulation used to study brain in situ, afferent & efferent
what is genetic stimulation used for? regulate genetic transformation into proteins
fMRIs are not entirely accurate unless there is a correlation drawn between which 2 things? activity recorded on fMRI and an actual increase/decrease in firing of neurons in that area
thirst: homeostasis of ________ osmolarity
neurons can't live without functional ____ ______ cell membranes
an ionic pump for a cell membrane sets up what? a concentration gradient
result of saline infusion thirst
Imbalanced osmolarity can cause.... disruption of cell membranes
what does angiotensin II signal to the body? thirst
angiotensin II antagonists block.. thirst
what enzyme concerning thirst does the kidneys produce? renin
how do the kidneys know how much renin to produce? by the amount of fluid flowing through them
the liver secretes which enzyme? angiotensinogen
angiotensinogen reacts with with enzyme after leaving the liver? renin
what happens when angiotensinogen reacts with renin? it is converted to angiotensin I
which organ converts angiotensin I to angiontensin II? lungs
where is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) produced? lungs
angiotensin II targets which system? what is the result? vascular system, causing vasocontsriction
vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels
effect of angiotensin II on brain? tells us that we are thirsty
after angiotensin reaches brain, what is released? vasopressin
effect of vasopressin on vascular system increase in blood pressure, blood vessels constrict further
effect of vasopressin on kidneys increase in H2O retention (suppresses need to urinate)
angiotensin II also targets the cortex of _______ adrenals
results of angiotensin to acting on adrenal cortex (2) release of aldosterone, increase in Na+ retention
4 regions with high angiotensin II receptors area postrema, subcommissural organ, subfornical organ, hypothalamus
location of area postrema reticular portion of brain stem, immediately adjacent to 4th ventricle
location of subcommissural organ between commissure of 2 hemisphere
location of subfornical organ below fornix
4 hypothalamic regions with angiotensin II receptors Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), Preoptic nucleus (PON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), lateral hypothalamus
OVLT receives input from what brain region? amygdala
location of preoptic nucleus in front of optic nerve
location of paraventricular nucleus around 3rd ventricle
largest hypothalamic region w/ angiotensin II receptors lateral hypothalamus
hypothalamic region w/ high concentration of angiotensin II receptors area postrema
3 types of spatial target lesions knife cuts, aspiration, radio-frequency
3 types of cellular target lesions excitotoxic, neurotoxic, knockout mutants
6 types of chemical stimulation peripheral stimuli, ionic, agonists, antagonists, extracellular mediators, intrecellular messengers
3 types of extracellular recording field potentials, multi-unit, single unit
2 types of intracellular recording voltage clamp & current clamp
2 types of whole cell patch recording voltage clamp & current clamp
3 types of single-channel patch recording inside out, outside in, cell attached
define edema too much fluid in tissues
possible result of edema cellular rupture
hypothalamic regulation of appetite concerns how many nuclei so far? 67
3 areas of hypothalamic regulation of appetite LH, VMH, DMH
6 hypothalamic nuclei associated with regulation of appetite OVLT, preoptic, paraventricular, arcuate, tubero-mammillary, SCN
effects of a VMH lesion on a rat lack of motivation --> will drown if placed in water, will not move if placed in irregular body postures
problem with lesion studies 1. When you damage an area, you not only damage that are, but anything that has axons passing through that area.
median forebrain bundle is main source of which NT? dopamine
main function of ventral medial hypothalamus food intake vs. body weight balance
someone with a VMH lesion will become... hyperphagic, obese
hyperphagic "set point" of how much food to intake is changed, subject eats much more than normal
someone with an LH lesion will become... hypophagic
upper stomach distension inhibits ______ release ghrelin
which substance is released in increasing amounts as your stomach becomes less full? ghrelin
ghrelin crosses the ____-____ _____ to stimulate release of which neuropeptide? blood-brain barrier, neuropeptide-Y
where is neuropeptide-Y released? what is the result? lateral hypothalamus, stimulates eating
where is leptin released? adipose tissue
leptin inhbits release of.... NPY on lateral hypothalamus
leptin increases release of which hormone? melanocyte stimulating hormone
where is MSH released? arcuate nucleus
MSH stimulates which sensation? where? satiety, ventral medial hypothalamus
where is hypocretin/orexin released? lateral hypothalamus
ghrelin release stimulates _____ release orexin
which 2 substances inhibit orexin release? leptin, glucose
PVN is involved in which 2 functions? circadian rhythm of eating, food intake
before body temp rises, the temp rises of which brain region? hypothalamus
why is the rising of body temp beneficial? it assists immune system in fighting off infection
areas with angiotensin receptors have weak what? blood-brain barriers
Created by: amberlieskye
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