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Nervous System Ch.8

afferent nerves transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS: sensory nerves
agraphia inability to convert ones thoughts into writing
alexia inability to understand written words
analgesia without sensitivity to pain
anesthesia without feeling or sensation
aneurysm localized dilatation in the wall of an artery expanding with each pulsation
aphasia inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury/disease in areas of the brain
apraxia inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly
ataxia without muscular coordination
aura sensation you experience to onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic sizure
autonomic nervous system regulates the involuntary vital functions of the body. two divisions: SNS & PNS
axon part of nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from nerve cell body
bradykinesia abnormally slow movement
brain stem stemlike portion of the brain connecting cerebral hemisphere w/ spinal cord. medulla oblongata
brudzinski's sign positive sign of meningitis
burr hole hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill
cell body part of the cell that contains the nucleus & cytoplasm
central nervous system two main divisions of the nervous system, consist of brain & spinal cord
cephalalgia headache
cerebellum part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement
cerebral concussion interruption of brain function, w/ loss of consciousness last for a few seconds
cerebral contusion small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain "bruise". occurs when brain strikes the inner skull
cerebrospinal fluid fluid flowing through the brain & around the spinal cord, protecting from physical blow or impact
cerebrum largest & uppermost part of the brain
coma deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
craniotomy surgical incision into the cranium or skull
deficit deficiency or variation of the normal
dementia progressive irreversible mental disorder
demyelination destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber
dysphasia difficult speech
efferent nerves transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS- motor nerves
hemiplegia paralysis of one half of the body
herpes zoster shingles
hyperesthesia excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli. pain or touch
interneurons connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor nerves
lethargy state of being sluggish
medulla oblongata most essential part of the brain, contains cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory centers
meninges three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain & spinal cord
myelin sheath protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body.
narcolepsy uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep
nerve cordlike bundle of nerve fibers. transmits impulses to & from the brain & spinal cord
nerve block injection of local anesthetic to eliminate sensation along nerves
neuralgia severe, sharp, spasmlike pain extends along the course of one or more nerves
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neuroglia supporting tissue of the nervous system
neurologist physician who specialized in treating the disease & disorders of the nervous system
neurology study of the nervous system & its disorders
neuron nerve cell
neurosurgeon physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
neurosurgery surgery involving the nervous system
neurotransmitter chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapses
nuchal rigidity rigidity of the neck
occlusion blockage
oligodendrocyte neuroglial cell found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system
palliative soothing
paraplegia paralysis of the lower extremities & trunk, usually due to spinal cord injury
parasympathetic nerves nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions: slowing heart rate
paresthesia sensation of numbness or tingling
peripheral nervous system part of the nervous system outside the CNS, 12 pairs of cranial nerves & 31 pairs of spinal nerves
pineal body small cone-shaped structure: pineal gland
plexus network of interwoven nerves
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities & the trunk of the body. injury to the spinal cord
receptor sensory nerve ending
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve
sensory pertaining to sensation
sensory nerves transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS; afferent nerves
somatic nervous system part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions
stupor state of lethargy
subarachnoid space space located just under the arachnoid membrane that contains CSF
sympathetic nerves nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions: increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels
synapse space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another, nerve impulses are transmitted
syncope fainting
thalamus part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres & the midbrain
thrombosis abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
ventricle, brain small hollow within the brain that is filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid
whiplash injury to the cervical vertebrae & their supporting structures due to sudden back & forth jerking movement of head & neck
Alzheimer's Disease deterioration of a persons intellectual functioning. progressive & extremely debilitating
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis severe weakening & wasting of the involved muscle groups
Anencephaly absence of the brain & spinal cord at birth; congenital disorder
Bell's Palsy temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
Cerebral Concussion brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few seconds
Cerebral contusion small, scattered venous hemorrhage in the brain "bruise"
Cerebral Palsy congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) death of a specific portion of brain tissue; stroke
Degenerative Disk deterioration of the intervertebral disk
Encephalitis inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus
Epilepsy excessive irregular electrical activity of the brain resulting in involuntary muscle movements called seizures
Grand mal Seizure epileptic seizure, sudden loss of consciousness & by generalized involuntary muscular contraction
Petit mal Seizure small seizures in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness; absence seizures
Guillain-Barre Syndrome acute polyneuritis (inflammation of many nerves), myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed
migraine headache recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually develops on one side of the head
cluster headache typically two to three hours after falling asleep, extreme pain around one eye
tension headache long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around face, scalp, upper back, & neck
hematoma, subdural collection of blood below the dura mater & above the arachnoid layer of the meninges
herniated disk rupture or herniation of the disk center, causes pressure on spinal cord or nerve roots
Huntington's Chorea inherited neurological disease
hydrocephalus abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate; congenital disorder
meningitis (acute bacterial) serious bacterial infection of the meninges
multiple sclerosis (MS) degenerative inflammatory disease of the CNS attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord & brain
neuroblastoma highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system
Parkinson's Disease degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stems motor system
Reye's Syndrome acute brain encephalopahty along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections: occurs in children between 5 & 11
shingles herpes zoster
cerebral angiography visualization of the cerebral vascular system via X-ray
CT scan of the brain Computed tomography: analysis of three-dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as X-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain (computerized axial tomography CAT scan)
electroencephalography measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain & recorded through electrodes
lumbar puncture insertion of a hollow needle & stylet into the subarachnoid space. between the 3rd & 4th lumbar vertebrae
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue & bony structures without use of radiation
neurectomy neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves
positron emission tomography (PET scan) computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected
Romberg test used to evaluate cerebellar function & balance
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site.
Created by: asmaba08



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