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functions of blood/ cardiovascular system TRANSPORT (O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, hormones, and cells) PROTECTION (inflammation, limits spread of infection, destroys harmful cells, neutralizes toxins, clotting) REGULATION (fluid balance, stabilizes pH of ECF, and temperature control)
blood composed of.... PLASMA (serum & fibers), containing FORMED ELEMENTS: erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), platelets
hematocrit centrifuge blood to separate components
proportions of formed elements & plasma in blood erythrocytes settle to bottom (densest): 45%; buffy coat= platelets & white blood cells: 1%; plasma= 55%
3 major categories of plasma proteins are.... & roles of blood proteins fibrinogen, albumin, globulin; roles in clotting, defense, transport of solutes
fibrinogen precursor of fibrin threads that help form BLOOD CLOTS formed by liver
albumin smallest and most abundant contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance formed by liver
globulin antibodies: provide immune system functions formed by lymphocytes
viscosity thickness, resistance of a fluid to flow, resulting from cohesion of its particles; blood 4.5- 5.5x thicker than water
blood osmolarity total molarity of those dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel wall; too HIGH --> blood absorbs too much water from other ECF; too LOW --> too much water retention in tissues: edema
Hypoproteinemia deficiency of plasma proteins: dilute blood, not enough blood solutes; liver or kidney disease severe burns extreme starvation
Kwashiorkor A form of severe malnutrition protein deficiency affects movements of bodily fluids swollen abdomen from fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity
Hemopoiesis = production of blood
Hemopoietic tissue 1. yolk sac; liver, spleen, thymus; red bone marrow (by childhood, produce all formed elements): pluripotent stem cells= in red bone marrow, can make all blood cells
Erythrocytes main function carry OXYGEN from lungs --> cell tissues; carry CARBON DIOXIDE from cell tissues --> lungs
erythrocytes composed of.... 33% hemoglobin (in cytoplasm), cytoskeleton proteins (membrane durability & resilience), carbonic anhydrase (produces CARBONIC ACID from water & CO2, gas transport & pH balance)
hemoglobin structure 4 protein chains – globins & 4 heme groups
globins 4 protein chains: 2 alpha, 2 beta chains; 5% CO2 in blood bound to globin; exceptions: Fetal (gamma) Hb replaces beta; Delta Hb replaces beta in small % of adult Hb molecules
heme nonprotein; binds O2 to ferrous ion (Fe2+) @ its center
iron metabolism summary ingest iron --> picked up from diet by blood --> transferred to liver--> binds to transferrin --> stores some of iron; LIVER gets out all iron for blood
erythrocyte production pluripotent stem cell -->erythrocyte colony-forming unit --> erythroblast --> reticulocyte --> erythrocyte (mature cell)
erythrocyte homeostasis: negative feedback stimulus for increasing erythropoeisis= low O2 (hypoxia/hypoxemia): high altitude increase in exercise loss of lung tissue in emphysema loss of blood
Erythrocytes Death, & Disposal Worn RBCs lyse in spleen (spleen DETECTS worn out cells); Macrophages digest cell debris; hemoglobin degraded --> heme (--> biliverdin & iron), globin
erythrocyte disorder: Polycythemia EXCESS of RBCs; may caused by cancer, dehydration, high altitude, or physical conditioning; results: ↑blood volume, ↑pressure, ↑viscosity
erythrocyte disorder: Anemia causes DEFICIENCY of RBC; from inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis, hemorrhagic anemias from bleeding, hemolytic anemias: RBC destruction
erythrocyte disorder: Anemia consequences tissue hypoxia and necrosis ↓ blood osmolarity, producing tissue edema ↓viscosity
erythrocyte disorder: specific anemias Iron deficiency anemia, Pernicious anemia (B12 deficiency), Hypoplastic/aplastic anemia
sickle-cell disorder Cells sickle under ↓O2 conditions, Sickled cells agglutinate (cytoskeleton changes shape)
Leukocytes=..... functions..... WHITE BLOOD CELLS: Least abundant formed element; Protect against pathogens, Spend time in blood and connective tissue
granules =lysosome called nonspecific (azurophilic) granules in all WBC; granulocytes have specific granules w/ enzymes/ chemicals employed in defense against pathogens
types of granulocytes neutrophils, Eosinophils, basophils
neutrophils Most Abundant Phagocytic, destroy bacteria
eosinophils Respond to Parasitic worms and allergens
basophils Release - Histamine (vasodilator, inflammation) Heparin (anit-coagulent)
agranulocytes include..... lymphocytes and monocytes
lymphocytes destroy cells beyond repair (cancer, foreign, virally infected), secrete antibodies --> immune memory, "present" antigens to activate other immune cells
monocytes increased # in viral infections and inflammation; = MACROPHAGES after leaving blood; phagocytize pathogens and debris “present” antigens to activate other immune cells
leukocyte disorders: leukopenia low WBC count ; causes: radiation, poisons, infectious disease consequences: elevated risk of infection
leukocyte disorders: Leukocytosis high WBC count; causes: infection, allergy differential WBC count – identifies what percentage of the total WBC count consist of each type of leukocyte
leukocyte disorders: Leukemia cancer of hemopoietic tissue: high level of WBC, but stem cells wear out, level drops; myeloid leukemia – ↑granulocyte production lymphoid leukemia - ↑lymphocyte or monocyte production
platelets SMALL fragments of megakaryocyte cells complex internal structure amoeboid movement and phagocytosis
platelet functions Limit blood loss (secrete vasoconstrictors- constrict blood vessels, Participate in hemostasis), Combat infection (phagocytize and destroy bacteria, attract neutrophils and monocytes)
hemostasis; mechanisms the stopping of bleeding: vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, blood clotting (coagulation)
Hemostasis: blood clotting Conversion of FIBRINOGEN into FIBRIN (via enzyme THROMBIN); activate one procoagulant (series of enzymes) and it will activate the next to form a reaction cascade
Hemostasis: extrinsic pathway factors released by DAMAGED TISSUES begin cascade
Hemostasis: intrinsic pathway factors found IN BLOOD (platelet degranulation) begin cascade
Created by: kpan



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