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23 Respiratory

upper respiratory system nose, pharynx, and associated structures
lower respiratory system larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
conducting zone conducts air to the lungs (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles)
respiratory zone site of gas exchange (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli)
external nose portion of nose visible on the face; bony framework and cartilaginous framework
function of the external nose (3) warming, moistening, and filtering incoming air; detecting olfactory stimuli; modifying speech vibrations through the resonating chambers
resonance prolonging, amplifying, or modifying a sound by vibration
internal nose large cavity beyond nasal vestibule; ethmoid bone forms the roof; palatine bones and palatine processes of the maxillae form the floor
nasal septum separates nasal cavity into right and left
what does the arrangement of superior, middle, and inferior meatus plus the conchae do? increases surface area and prevents dehydration by trapping water during exhalation
location of the pharynx starts at the internal nares and extends to the cricoid cartilage of the larynx
functions of the pharynx (3) passageway for air and food; resonating chamber for speech; houses the tonsils
nasopharynx houses pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil; receives air from the nasal cavity along with packages of dust-laden mucus; exchanges small amounts of air with the auditory tubes to equalize air pressure between the pharynx and middle ear
oropharynx contains one opening, fauces (throat); serves as a common passageway for air, food, and drink; houses the palatine and lingual tonsils
laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) opens into the esophagus posteriorly (food); opens into the larynx anteriorly (voicebox)
larynx small passageway connecting the laryngopharynx to the trachea
structure of larynx (9) thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, 2 arytenoid cartilage, 2 cuneiform cartilage, and 2 corniculate cartilage
arytenoid cartilages influence changes in position and tension of the vocal cords (true vocal cords)
thyroid cartilage Adam's apple
epiglottis during swallowing elevation of the larynx causes the epiglottis to cover the glottis, this routes food and liquids into the esophagus
cricoid cartilage hallmark for tracheotomies
cilia move particles trapped in mucus down (upper respiratory) or up (lower respiratory) to the pharynx
pitch controlled by tension on the vocal cords
vetnricular folds (false vocal cords) formed by the larynx mucous membrane; when closed it functions in holding breath against pressure in the thoracic cavity
vocal folds (true vocal cords) formed by the larynx mucous membrane; vibrate to produce sound with air
voice production pharynx, mouth, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses act as resonating chambers; muscles of the face, tongue, and lips help enunciate the words
location of trachea anterior to esophagus; below the larynx to T5, where it branches into right and left bronchi
structure of tracheal wall (4) mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, and adventitia
16-20 C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage open part faces the esophagus and provides support to the tracheal wall so it doesn't collapse inward during inhalation
right primary bronchus more vertical, shorter, and wider than left; aspirated object more likely to lodge in the right
carina where bronchi branches into left and right; most sensitive part of the cough reflex
bronchial tree right/left primary bronchi > secondary (lobar) bronchi > tertiary (segmental) bronchi > bronchioles > terminal bronchioles
structural changes during branching (3) mucous membrane changes; incomplete rings become plates then disappear; as cartilage decreases, the smooth muscle increases
asthma because there is no supporting cartilage muscle spasms can occur closing off airways
pleural membrane double-layered serous membrane: parietal pleura and visceral pleura
parietal pleura lines the wall of the thoracic cavity
visceral pleura covers the lungs themselves
base of the lungs part resting on the diaphragm
apex of the lungs top portion
hilus of the lungs area where bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter/exit the lungs
cardiac notch where the heart fits into the left lung
lobule small compartments, containing: a lymphatic vessel, an arteriole, a venule, and a branch from a terminal bronchiole
respiratory bronchioles sub branches of terminal bronchioles
alveoli cup-shaped outpouching lined by simple squamous epithelium; two types of alveolar alveolar cells
alveolar sac two or more alveoli that share the same opening
type I alveolar cells most numerous; simple squamous; main site of gas exchange
type II alveolar cells "septal cells;" cuboidal; contains microvilli and secretes alveolar fluid, keeps the surface between cells and air moist
surfactant a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins within alveolar fluid; lowers surface tension which reduces the tendency of alveoli to collapse
alveolar macrophages (dust cells) removes dust particles from alveolar spaces
structure of the respiratory membrane alveolar and capillary walls; alveolar wall, epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, and capillary endothelium
function of the respiratory membrane where exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs by diffusion
ventilation-perfusion coupling vessels constrict to divert blood to better ventilated areas of the lung
respiration process of gas exchange in the body
3 steps of respiration pulmonary ventilation, external (pulmonary) respiration, and internal (tissue) respiration
pulmonary ventilation breathing; involves the exchange of air between the atmosphere and alveoli of the lungs
external (pulmonary) respiration exchange of gases between alveoli of the lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries; pulmonary capillary blood gains oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
internal (tissue) respiration exchanges of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells; blood loses oxygen and gains carbon dioxide (produced by cellular respiration)
Boyle's Law pressure is inversely related to volume, more volume equals less pressure
inhalation occurs when pressure in alveoli is less than atmospheric pressure (760mmHg); pressure change achieved by increasing the size of the lungs
diaphragm during inhalation contracts causing it to flatten; responsible for 75% of the air entering the lungs
external intercostals during inhalation contracts causing ribs to elevate allowing 25% of the air to enter the lungs
intrapleural (intrathoracic) pressure pressure between two pleural layers; parietal pleura, visceral pleura and lungs are pulled in all directions
alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure pressure inside the lungs
accessory muscles help increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forceful inhalation; sternocleidomastoid (elevates sternum), scalene (elevates first 2 ribs), and pectoralis minor (elevates ribs 3-5)
exhalation passive process during quiet breathing
elastic recoil cause of exhalation; two contributing forces: recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inhalation and inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
muscles of forceful exhalation abdominals and internal intercostals
alveolar surface tension causes alveoli to assume the smallest possible diameter; surface tension must be overcome to expand lungs during inhalation; accounts for 2/3 of lung elastic recoil
lung compliance high compliance means lungs and chest wall expand easily; two factors: elasticity and surface tension
airway resistance larger diameter airway has less resistance; regulated by the diameter of bronchioles and smooth muscle tone
eupnea normal quiet breathing
costal breathing shallow breating, upward and outward movement
diaphragmatic breathing deep breathing, outward movement of the abdomen
tidal volume volume of air in one breath; approximately 500mL
minute ventilation volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute; (breaths per min) x (tidal volume)
spirometer used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and respiratory rate
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) additional air inhaled by taking a deep breath
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) volume of air that can be exhaled in addition to tidal volume by exhaling forcefully
residual volume (RV) air remaining after expiratory reserve volume is exhaled
inspiratory capacity (IC) 3.6L; (tidal volume) + (inspiratory reserve volume); amount of air that can be inhaled
vital capacity (VC) 4.8L; (IRV) + (tidal volume) + (ERV); amount of air inhaled and exhaled
functional residual capacity (FRC) 2.4L; (ERV) + (RV); amount of air that can be exhaled
total lung capacity (TLC) 6L; (VC) + (RV); total air
anatomic dead space air in the conducting zone that does not undergo gas exchange
alveolar ventilation rate volume of air per minute that reaches the respiratory zone
Dalton's Law each gas exerts it's own pressure as if no other gases were present; each gas diffuses across a permeable membrane from the area where its partial pressure is greater to lower
Henry's Law quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressures of the gas and its soulbility; nitrogen gas normally doesn't dissolve into blood due to low solubility
nitrogen narcosis under high pressure nitrogen gas enters blood
bends nitrogen gas comes out of blood too quickly resulting in decompression sickness
external respiration (pulmonary gas exchange) diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to blood in pulmonary capillaries and movement of carbon dioxide from the pulmonary capillaries to alveoli; occurs due to partial pressure differences and the exchange continues till partial pressures are equal
internal respiration systemic capillaries exchange oxygen with tissue cells' carbon dioxide
partial pressure difference of the gases alveolar partial pressure of oxygen must be higher than blood for diffusion to occur
surface area available for gas exchange emphysema (alveolar wall disintegrates) lowers external respiration
diffusion distance pulmonary edema (build up of IF between alveoli) greater the distance of diffusion slows gas exchange
molecular weight and solubility of gases carbon dioxide has a 24x's solubility of oxygen; when diffusion is slow hypoxia occurs before hypercapnia
oxygen transport 98.5% is bound to hemoglobin; 4 molecules of oxygen is bound to each globin (called oxyhemoglobin)
relationship between hemoglobin and partial pressure of oxygen the higher the pressure the more oxygen will bind to hemoglobin
temperature's influence on Hb's affinity when the temperature increases, more oxygen is released; a high temperature shifts the curve right
pH's influence on Hb's affinity when acidity increases Hb's affinity for oxygen decreases, releasing oxygen; greater the acidity shifts the curve right
partial pressure of carbon dioxide on Hb's affinity when partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases Hb's affinity for oxygen decreases; higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide shifts the curve right
BPG's influence on Hb's affinity when BPG is high it increases the unloading of oxygen; high BPG shifts the curve right
2,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG) formed in RBCs when they breakdown glucose for ATP
Hb affinity of fetal and adult hemoglobin fetal Hb affinity higher than adult, therefore more oxygen from the mother's blood is transferred to fetal blood
carbon dioxide transport 100mL of deoxygenated blood contains 53mL of gaseous carbon dioxide
dissolved carbon dioxide only 7%, found in blood plasma; diffuses into alveolar air
carbamino compounds 23% combines with amino groups of amino acids and proteins; carbaminohemoglobin
bicarbonate ions 70% transported in blood; carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate (caused by carbonic anhydrase)
chloride shift bicarbonate accumulates in RBCs as it picks up carbon dioxide causing an inflow of chloride ions to RBCs to balance the loss of negative ions
haldane effect the lower amount of oxyhemoglobin the higher the carbon dioxide carrying capacity; deoxyhemoglobin buffers more hydrogen ion than oxyhemoglobin
respiratory center (3) medullary rhythmicity in the medulla oblongata, pneumotaxic area in the pons, and apneustic area in the pons
medullary rhythmicity nerve impulses in the inspiratory area establishes the rhythm of breathing; after 2 secs the inspiratory area inactivates and for 3 secs exhalation occurs; forceful breathing the expiratory area is activated
pneumotaxic area transmits inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory area; turns off area before lungs become too full (shortens inhalation)
apneustic area transmits excitatory impulses to the inspiratory area; prolongs inhalation for deep inhalation
cortical influence on respiration voluntary control
chemoreceptor regulation of respiration monitors levels of carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion, and oxygen; modes how quickly and how deeply we breathe
central chemoreceptors located near the medulla oblongata and responds to changes in hydrogen ion concentration and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in CSF
peripheral chemoreceptors located in the aortic bodies and in carotid bodies and monitor changes in partial pressure of oxygen and partial pressure of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion in blood
proprioceptor stimulation located in joints; when you start exercising proprioceptors stimulate the inspiratory area
inflation (Hering-Bruer) reflex located in the walls of bronchi and bronchioles; inhibit inspiratory and apneustic areas by stimulating the vagus (X) nerves; protective mechanism preventing excessive inflation of the lungs
exercise and the respiratory system as cardiac output rises, blood flow to the lungs is increased, and oxygen diffusion is increased
pulmonary perfusion blood flow to the lungs
Created by: sibuxiang