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ap 21

The nose provides an Airway for respiration
the nose moistens, warms, filters and cleans incoming air
what does the nose provide for speech resonance chamber
the nose houses olfactory receptors
the nose is divided into the external nose and the nasal caity
the nasal cavity is entirely within the skull
the external nose is formed of hyaline cartilage and bones of the skull
the nasal cavity consists of two types of epithelium
the naal cavity consists of what two types of epithelium? Olfactory Mucosa and Respiratory Mucosa
Respiratory Mocosa is made of. pseudostratified ciliated epitheal with goblet and mucous cells, and serous glands
Serous glands are watery fluids with enzymes.
serous glands secrete lysozyme
lysozyme is an antibacterial enzyme
mucus traps dust bacteria and othr debris
epithelial cells secrete defensins
defensins are... natural antibiotics
water helps humidify the air
ciliated cells move mucus towards the stomach
the nasal cavity is surrounded by the paranasal sinuses
homeostatic imbalance rhinitis
inflammation of the nasal mucosa with excess mucus production, nasal congestion and post nasal drip. rhinitis
when the sinuses are blocked, the air is absorbed causing a vacuum. this is known as.. sinus headache
the pharynx connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly.
serves as only an air passageway nasopharynx
the nasopharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
what traps and destroys airborne pathogens?? pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
during swallowing what closes off so stuff doesn't go into the nasal cavity? the softplate and uvula
what is homeostatic imbalance of the pharynx? enlarged adenoids
________ _________ make it difficult to breath thru the nose, impair speech and sleep. enlarged adenoids
pharyngotympanic means auditory
____________ is an air AND food passageway that extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis oropharynx
the palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils are found where? Oropharynx
what is the air and food passageway that lies directly posterior to the epiglottis the laryngopharynx
the __________ is stratified squamos epithelium laryngopharynx
this is made of elastic cartilage and is covered by tasebud containing mucosa and anchored to thyroid cartilage epiglottis
the vocal folds and the medal space between them are called glottis
______ _________ involves the intermittent release of expired air and the opening and closing of the glottis voice productionlaryngitis
what is homeostatic imbalance of the larynx? Laryngitis
______ ________ is a behavior in which the glottis closes to prevent exhaation and the abdominal muscles contract, causing intra-abdominal pressure to rise to help empty the rectum and stabilize th body trunk when one lifts a heavy load?? Valsalva's Maneuver
what is lined with goblet cell containing pseudostratified epithelium that propels mucus toward the pharynx.. Mucosa
what is.. connective tissue layer with seromucous gands that help produce mucous "sheets" within the trachea. Submucosa
the submucosa rests of the cartilage rings
what is a connective tissue layer that envelops the cartilage?? Adventitia
what are the three layers of the trachea, or windpipe Mucosa, Submucosa and adventitia
what is the outtermost layer of the trachea Adventitia
The branching pattern of airways is often called the ________ or ______________ _______ Bronchial or Respiratory Tree
the conducting zone consists of right and left primary bronchi
Primary bronchi enter each lung and diverge into secondary bronchi
secondary bronchia serves each lobe of the lungs
secondary bronchi branch into several orders of tertiary bronchi
tertiary bronchi ultimately branch into Bronchioles
debris must be removed by macrophages
the _______ zone begins as the terminal bronchioles feed into respiratory bronchioles that terminate in alveolar ducts within clusters of alveolar sacs, which consist of alveolie The respiratory Zone
300 million of them on average consist Alveoli
_____ ______ consists of a single layer of squamous wpithelium, type I cells, surrounded by a basal lamina Respiratory membrane
what lung is smaller left
what lung is bigger right
how many lobes does the right lung have 3
why is the right lung smaller due to the heart position
how many lobes does te left lung have 2
Each lobe has about 9-10 bronchopulmonary segments
consists largely of air spaces Lung tissue
what is comprised mostly of elastic connective tissue? Stroma
unoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs 2 pulmonary arteries
oxygenated blood back to the left atrium 4 pulmonary veins
the lungs are ______ by parasympathetic and sympathetic motor fibers that constrict or dilate the airways, as well as visceral sensory fibers. innervated
what forms a thin, double layered serosa? Pleurae
pleura that covers the thoracic wall, superior face of the diaphragm and continues around the heart between the lungs parietal pleura
pleura that covers the external lung surface visceral pleura
the pleural cavity is filled with pleural fluid
what is hoeostatic imbalance of the lungs and pleurae?? pleurisy
inflammation of the pleurae, resluting from pneumonia Pleurisy
what are the two phases of breathing and pulmonary respiration?? inspiration and Expiration
Respiratory pressure is described relative to atmospheric pressure
what does Hg stand for Mercurey
Respiratory pressure is how many mm of mercurey 760
760mm Hg is = to 1 atm at sea level
(Ppul)is Intrapulmonary pressure
(Ppul) is the pressure in the alveoli
(Pip) is Inrapleural Pressure
(Pip) is the pressure in the pleural cavity
What pressure is always 4 mm Hg less Intrapleural
the difference between the pressures that keeps the lungs from collapsing Transpulmonary Pressure
what is homeostatic imbalance of the pressure relationships Atelectasis (lung collapse)
occurs when bronchioles become plugged and its associated alveoli absorb all of its air and collapses Atelectasis (lung collapse)
After a lung collapses and air enters the pleural cavity this is known as pneumothorax
- means.. air in
+ means air out
0 means no air in or out
a mechanical process causing gas flow into and out of the lungs according to volume changes in the thoracic cavity pulmonary ventilation
volume changes lead to pressure changes
pressure changes lead to the flow of gasses to equalize the pressure
_____ _______ states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of gas varies inversely with its volume P1V1=P2V2 Boyle's Law
P1V1= P2V2
during this the diaphram and intercostals contract quiet inspiration
quiet inspiration results in an increase in thoracic volume
accessory muscles of the neck and thorax contract, increasing thoracic volume beyond the increase in volume during quiet inspiration foced inspiration
scalenes, SCM, pec minor Neck and thorax
________ ________ is a passive process that relies mostely on elastic recoil of the lungs as the thoracic muscles relax. Quiet expiration
is an ACTIVE process relying on contraction of abdominal muscles (esp. obliques) to increase intra-abdominal pressure and depress the rib cage. Forced Expiration
what is not a factor in a healthy person Airway Resistance
________ _________ is the friction encountered by air in the airways; gas flow is reduced as airway resistance increases Airway Resistance
airway resistance is greatest at the medium-sized bronchi
this system causes vigorous constriciton of the bronchioles Parasympathetic System
this is when histamine and other inflammatory chems cause strong bronchoconstruction. Acute Asthma
what causes vasodilation Epinephrine
the lungs strech during inspiration and recoil during expiration
what are other obstuctions in the pulmonary ventilation system mucus, fluids, solid tumors
this is when liquid molecules are more stongly attracted to each other than gas molecules.. alveolar surface tension
this draws water molecules together surface tension
in the lungs,water would "squeeze" the alveoli into colapsing if not for __________________ surfactant
surfactant is a lipid-like detergent
surfactant is produced by type II Alveolar cells
IRDS Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
____ ____________ is determined by distensibility of lung tissue and the surrounding thoracic cage, and alveolar surface tension. Lung Compliance
Lung compliance means strechability
Higher lung compliance= greater distensibility
people with poor lung compliance have fibrosis
volume is a single measurement
capacity means 2-3 volumes together
the amount of air flushed in and out of the lungs depends on conditions of inspiration and expiration
what is used to gain information about a persons respiratory status Respiratory Volumes and Respiratory Capacities
the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath during quiet breathing and is about 500mL. Tidal Volume
__________ is the amount of air that can be forcibly inspired beyond the tibal volume after tidal inspiration around 2100-3200mL. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
what is the amount of air that can be evacuated from the lungs after tidal expiration, about 1000-1200mL. Expiratory Reserve Volume
____ _________ is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal forced expiration, and is necessary to keep the alveoli paten and prevent lung collapse Residual Volume
what consists of two or more capacities Respiratory Capacities
______ _________ is the sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume, and represents the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration Inspiratory Capacity
Inspiratory Capacity is when you breath in maximally after quiet expiration
FRC Functional residual capacity
_____ _______ _____________ is the amount of air remaining int he lungs after tial expiration and is RV+ERV Functional Residual CApacity
_____ ________ is the sum of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve, and expiratory reserve volumes, and is the total amount of exchangeable air Vital capacity
_____ ______ _______ is the sum of all lung volumes Total Lung Capacity
tidal volume is .5lt of air or 500mL
________ _______ ______ is the volume of the conducting zone conduits Anatomical dead space
what contributes to gas exchange in the lungs about 150mL Anatomical dead space
______ _______ ______ is added to the anatomical dead space Alveolar dead space
Anatomical dead space + Alveolar dead space = Total dead space
_______ _________ evaluate losses in respiratory function Pulmonary Function Tests
pulmonary function tests are performed using a spirometer
________ _______ is the total amount of gas that flows in or out of respiratory tract in one minute Minute Ventilation
what is 6L/min at rest; and 200L/min during excercise Minute ventilation
what test measures the amount of gas expelled when subject takes a breath and exhales forcefully and quickly Forced Vital capacity
what determined the amount of air expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC test. Forced Expiratory Volume
a healthy person can exhale 80% of FVC within one second
what are nonrespiratory air movements are coughing, sneezing, crying, laughing, hiccups, and yawning.
a rise in pressure = more gas in liquid
a drop in temperature = rise in solubility
colder= more gas in liquid
N2= Not soluble 99.5% not
O2= partly soluble
CO2= 20x's more soluble than oxygen.
Created by: asprague