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Cardiovascular2 MIT

What is the daily output of the human heart ? 7000 L
What is the mass of the heart? 300g
What percentage of the 5L of blood is in the pulmonary circuit? 9%
What percentage of the 5L of blood will be in the systemic circuit? 84%
What is the peak pressure in the Right Atrium? 2-5mmHg
What is the peak pressure in the Right Ventricle? 5-25mmHg
What is the peak pressure in the Left Atrium? 5-8mmHg
What is the peak pressure in the Left Ventricle? 8-120mmHg
What is the function of the auricle? Increases volume in the atrium
Which of the capillary systems in the systemic circuit has portal veins? Gut -> Liver has Hepatic Portal veins
The Auricle has a smooth interior. True or false? False, it is the Atria that are smooth
In the anterior view, which is more posterior? The pulmonary trunk or the aorta Aorta
What is the largest vein in the body Vena Cava
What is the largest artery in the body Aorta
Wall thickness ratio in the ventricles 3:1
Peak pressure ratio in the ventricles 5:1
What closes the Ventricular outlet valves? The pressure of blood trying to reenter the ventricle.
In what anatomical position is the apex of the heart? Inferior and anteriorally to the left
2/3 of the heart is on the left/right side Left
What forms the right border of the heart? Right ATRIUM
What forms the inferior border of the heart? Right ventricle
What forms the left border of the heart? Left Ventricle
What is the pericardium A "Double walled bag"
What does the parietal pericardium line? fibrous pericardium
What are the walls of the pericardium comprised of? Squamous mesothelial cells
What is inside the pericardial space and what is its purpose? A thin film of fluid in the pericardium space allows the visceral and parietal pericardium to slide without friction as the heart beats
Infarction Death of tissue (lack of oxygen)
Both Myocytes and Purkinje fibres contract. True or False? False. Only Myocytes contract. Purkinjke fibres are part of the conduction system of the heart.
Why is there only a small rise in atrial pressure? 1) Atrial muscle layer is thin 2) There are no valves where the pulmonary vein enter so there is nothing to prevent backflow
Tunica interna has 3 layers Endothelium, Basement membrane, Internal elastic lamina
What is the name of the muscular layer in a blood vessel containing smooth muscle and elastic fibres? Tunica Media
What is the role of smooth muscle fibres in the tunica media? To regulate the size of the lumen
What 2 layers does an Artery have that is not present in the vein? Internal and External elastic Lamina
Vasospasm Limits blood flow and thus reduces blood loss when the vessel is damaged.
Elastic Arteries primary function Propel blood onward while the ventricles are relaxing. This is done using the elastic recoil. They smooth the pulsatile flow of blood leaving the ventricles.
In Muscular arteries, smooth muscle is approximately __/__ of the total mass, making the walls very ______ 3/4 of the total mass Thick
Muscular arteries have as many as ___ layers of smoothmuscle compared to smaller arteries who have less than 3 40
Which of the arteries are good at directing blood flow? Muscular arteries
Arteriole primary function is? The control of blood flow into capillary beds
Which of the vessels have the largest tunica media relative to their size? Arterioles
Capillary function Thin walls (Single layer of epithelium) which enable exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes.Leaky.
What is NOT present in capillaries? Smooth muscle and connective tissue
White blood cells are not really 'blood cells'. What kind of cells are they? Connective tissue cells
Venule function Low pressure vessels that drain capillary beds.
Veins function Low pressure vessels that drain blood back into atria. Compliant and can act as a reservoir which stores blood. (64% blood volume are in veins and venules) Contain valves
Varicose veins Lack of valve function resulting in pooling of blood.
Where do coronary arteries arise? From the aorta, downstream from the aortic valve.
Ischemia Lack of oxygen
Angina Chest pain
Anastomoses Artery to artery junctions
Dilated cardiomyopathy is caused by? Infected muscle fibres (from alcohol or viral infection) that are attacked by lymphocytes which are then left weak and slow to contract
Which of the ventricles is most affected by dilated cardiomyopathy? Left ventricle due to high pressure
Mitral regurgitation causes what to happen in the pulmonary capillaries? Increase in blood leakage into the lungs (from 10->25)
Elastic artery distinctive Very Large Many sheets of elastin
Muscular Artery distinction Distribute blood at High Pressure (medium in lungs) Controls Rate of blood flow by changing RADIUS MANY layers of smooth muscle (40)
Arteriole distinction Thick Tunica Media relative to size Degree of constriction here determines MAP 1-3 layers of smooth muscle
Capillary distinction Thinnest walls (only one layer of endothelium) Slowest blood movement to allow for exchange to occur No smooth muscle or connective tissues
Venule Distinction Site where Neutrophils and other white blood cells leave the blood to attack bacteria in tissues Only Endothelium and some connective tissue Larger ones have one layer of smooth muscle
Vein distinction Thin walled (but similar to muscular artery) Compliant, can act as reservoirs (64%) Only vessel with valves
Coronary arteries distinction Muscular arteries
Created by: amal099



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