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Endocrine System

pituitary gland composed of 2 parts: ______ and ______ adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis
adenohypophysis ANTERIOR 3/4 of pituitary: arises from PHARYNX during development; EPITHELIAL characteristics
neurohypophysis posterior; outgrowth of brain/ NERVOUS tissue (not gland); =hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract
posterior pituitary hormones include.... ADH (antidiuretic hormone), OT (oxytocin)
ADH (function & control) retention of water, reduce urine, prevent dehydration; control= high blood solute concentrations detected by "osmoreceptors" in hypothalamus
Oxytocin uterus contractions during labor= positive feedback; lactation, emotional bonding; control= NEUROENDOCRINE reflex: cerebral cortex initiates hormone release
anterior pituitary hormones include.... FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, PRL, GH
FSH & LH Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone; reproductive activities; ANTERIOR pituitary
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone -> stimulates thyroid
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone --> stimulates adrenal cortex (secrete glucocorticoid)
PRL prolactin --> promotes lactation; stimulates mammary glands (synthesize milk) & testes (secrete semen)
GH growth hormone: stimulates mitosis & cell differentiation; = somatotropin; intermediate effector= IGF (somatomedin) to extend life of GH
GH & IGF effects increase PROTEIN production, mobilize FAT from adipocytes, spares CARBS (largely unused), increase ELECTROLYTE ion retention by kidney & absorption by intestines
GH stimulated by _______, inhibited by _______ Stimulated by: high protein meals, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar, spare glucose), sleep, exercise Inhibited by: hyperglycemia (high carb meals)
GH disorders gigantism (hypersecretion), acromegaly (hypersecretion), pituitary dwarfism (hyposecretion)
Thymus plays role in ________ lymphatic & immune system secretes hormones that stimulate development of lymphatic organs and activity of T-lymphocytes
Thyroid gland: thyroid follicles sacs that compose of thyroid w/ protein rich COLLOID follicular cells – simple cuboidal epithelium that lines follicles
Thyroid hormones T3 & T4 increase METABOLIC rate (make cells consume oxygen & energy), produce heat, increase appetite; composed of 2 tyrosines, 3-4 iodine ions
Thyroid gland disorders: hyposecretion CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM (decreased TH)=Hyposecretion present at birth; Skeletons don't form quite right MYXEDEMA (decreased TH) Adult/adolescent hypothyroidism
Thyroid gland disorders: Goiter pathological ENLARGEMENT of thyroid gland; dietary iodine deficiency, no Thyroid hormone --> increased TSH stimulates hypertrophy
Thyroid gland disorder: Grave's disease Antibodies mimic the effect of TSH on the thyroid causing hypersecretion of thyroid hormone; bulgy eyes
Thyroid gland: Parafollicular cells secrete _________ calcitonin w/ rising blood calcium; --> stimulates osteoblast activity and bone formation
Parathyroid glands 4 glands embedded in posterior surface of thyroid gland; hyoid bone down to aortic arch; secrete PTH
PTH functions Parathyroid hormone; INCREASES blood calcium levels; increase BONE resorption of calcium, decreases calcium urine excretion (KIDNEY), GUT: promotes calcitriol synthesis, increase calcium absorption
Parathyroid disorders HYPOparathyroidism: not enough PTH --> fatal tetany due to rapid decline in blood calcium level HYPERparathyroidism: too much PTH --> parathyroid tumor, bones become soft and deformed, calcium & phosphate blood levels increase, spontaneous calcificatio
Adrenal medulla release __________ catecholamines: epinephrine & norepinephrine
Adrenal medulla sympathetic effects INCREASE blood pressure, heart rate, blood flow to muscles, air flow and metabolic rate; DECREASE digestion & urine production
Adrenal medulla other effects mimic GH: mobilize high energy fuels, lactate, fatty acids, and glucose; INHIBITS insulin secretion (glucose-sparing), GLUCONEOGENESIS (making glucose out of non-glucose: fats, proteins), GLYCOGENOLYSIS (breaking apart glycogen from starch)
Adrenal cortex: 3 layers zona glomerulosa zona fasciculata zona reticularis --> secrete 3 groups of steroid hormones
zona glomerulosa secretes _______ mineralocorticoids – regulate the body’s electrolyte balance
zona glomerulosa: primary hormone ALDOSTERONE: increase SODIUM, decrease POTASSIUM resorption by kidney
zona fasciculata secretes ______________ glucocorticoids (affects glucose hormones)
zona fasciculata: primary hormone CORTISOL: regulate metabolism of glucose, stimulates fat and protein breakdown, stimulates GLUCONEOGENESIS (OPPOSITE effects of GH), adapt to STRESS and repair tissues, anti-inflammatory effect
Adrenal cortex: Cushing syndrome HYPERsecretion of cortisol: hyperglycemia, hypertension, weakness, edema; extra blood sugar --> FAT, muscle & bone loss
zona reticularis secretes __________ sex steroids; most common= testosterone
zona reticularis: primary hormones ANDROGENS (male hormones): DHEA sets libido (sex drive) throughout life; large role in prenatal male; ESTRADIOL (female hormones) small quantity, but important for sustaining adult bone mass
Adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) HYPERsecretion of Adrenal androgen; enlargement of external sexual organs in children and early onset of puberty; MASCULINIZING effects
pancreas secretes ______ insulin: secreted w/ INCREASED blood glucose levels, LOWERS glucose levels by stimulating cells to absorb glucose (promotes synthesis of glycogen); insufficiency --> DIABETES MELLITUS
diabetes mellitus hyposecretion or inaction of insulin, revealed by elevated blood glucose, glucose in urine and ketones in the urine; no insulin--> HIGH blood glucose level; filter blood --> leave a lot of glucose behind (urine)
Type 1 (IDDM) 5- 10%; treat w/ insulin; hereditary susceptibility ; autoantibodies attack and destroy pancreatic beta cells
Type 2 (NIDDM) 90- 95%; insulin insensitivity; oral medications improve insulin secretion or target cell sensitivity; factors= heredity, obesity, age (40+), ethnicity
Pancreatic hormones: glucagon secreted by alpha cells; released w/ FALLING blood glucose levels, Liver: stimulates GLUCONEOGENESIS & GLYCOGENOLYSIS (increase blood glucose); adipose tissue: stimulate fat catabolism
Pancreatic hormones: Somatostatin serves in a negative feedback loop, slowing digestion; stimulated by increased blood glucose & insulin, increased amino acids, increased fatty acids, increased hormones stimulating digestion
pineal gland attached to roof of third ventricle, Synchronizes w/ 24-hour circadian rhythms of daylight and darkness, makes MELATONIN (promotes sleep) from seratonin @ night; more seratonin during day (promotes alertness)
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) during winter or northern climates; Symptoms= depression, sleepiness, irritability and carbohydrate craving; PHOTOTHERAPY (2-3 hours of daylight) reduces melatonin level
stress any physical or mental situation that upsets homeostasis and threatens one’s physical or emotional well-being
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) way body reacts to stress; involves elevated levels of epinephrine and glucocorticoids (especially cortisol); occurs in three stages (alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion)
1. alarm reaction involves NOREPINEPHRINE (sympathetic nervous system) & EPINEPHRINE (adrenal medulla); prepares for FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT, consume stored glycogen, increase ALDOSTERONE (sodium & water conservation) and ANGIOTENSIN (raise blood pressure) levels
2. resistance stage dominated by CORTISOL: promotes breakdown of FAT and PROTEIN for gluconeogenesis, glucose-sparing effects; protein-synthesis INHIBITION --> decrease IMMUNE functions
3. exhaustion stage ongoing stress and fat reserves are gone--> homeostasis is overwhelmed --> marked by rapid decline and death; protein breakdown & muscle wasting (loss of glucose homeostasis), ALDOSTERONE: water retention & hypertension
classes of hormones 1. steroids (from cholesterol, secreted by gonads and adrenal cortex) 2. peptides and glycoproteins (from amino acids, secreted by pituitary and hypothalamus) 3. monoamines (from amino acids, secreted by adrenal medulla, pineal, thyroid glands)
hormone transport monoamines & peptides= hydrophillic (mix w/ blood plasma), steroids and thyroid hormone= hydrophobic --> require CARRIER --> bind to transport proteins (albumins and globulins)
hydrophobic hormones DIRECT affect on genes changing target cells, after penetrating plasma membrane and enter nucleus
hydrophilic hormones cannot penetrate into target cell must stimulate physiology indirectly (2nd MESSENGERS)
Hormone receptors: rules 1. stimulate only cells w/ RECEPTORS for them; 2. receptors on plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or nucleus; 3. Receptor-hormone interactions exhibit specificity and saturation (receptors saturated w/ hormones)
Created by: kpan



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