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atresia congenital lack of a normal body opening
barrier contraception prevention of pregnancy using a device to prevent sperm from meeting an ovum. Examples include condoms, diaphragms, & cervical caps.
colostrum Thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery. It does not contain much protein, but is rich in antibodies.
fraternal twins Twins that develop from 2 different ova fertilized by 2 different sperm. Although twins, these siblings do not have identical DNA.
gynecology branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of conditions of the female reproductive system. Physician is called a gynecologist.
hormonal conception Use of hormones to block ovulation & prevent contraception. May be in the form of a pill, patch, implant under the skin, or injection.
identical twins twins that develop from splitting of one fertilized ovum. These siblings have identical DNA.
infertility inability to produce children. Generally defined as no pregnancy after properly timed intercourse for one year.
intrauterine device Device that is inserted into the uterus by a physician for the purpose of contraception.
meconium first bowel movement of a newborn. It is greenish-black in color and consists of mucus and bile.
neonatology Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of conditions involving newborns. Physician is called a neonatologist.
obstetrics Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis & treatment of women during pregnancy, childbirth, & immediately after childbirth. Physician is called an obstetrician.
premenstrual syndrome Symptoms that develop just prior to the onset of a menstrual period, which can include irritability, headache, tender breasts, & anxiety.
puberty Beginning of menstruation and the ability to reproduce.
ovarian carcinoma cancer of the ovary
ovarian cyst cyst that develops within the ovary. These may be multiple cysts & may rupture, causing pain and bleeding.
cervical cancer Malignant growth of the cervix. Some cases are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus for which there's now a vaccine.It’s difficult to treat & causes 5% of cancer deaths in women.Pap smear tests have helped detect early cervi
endometrial cancer cancer of the endrometrial lining of the uterus.
fibroid tumor benign tumor or growth that contains fiber-like tissue. Uterine fibroid tumors are the most common tumors in women.
menometrorrhagia excessive bleeding during the menstrual period & at intervals between menstrual periods
prolapsed uterus fallen uterus that can cause the cervix to protrude through the vaginal opening. Generally caused by weakened muscles from vaginal delivery or pelvic tumors pressing down.
candidiasis Yeast infection of the skin and mucus membranes that can result in white plaques of the tongue and vagina
cystocele hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. May cause urinary frequency & urgency.
rectocele protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina.
toxic shock syndrome Rare & sometimes fatal staphylococcus infection that generally occurs in menstruating women. Initial infection of the vagina is associated with prolonged wearing of a super-absorbent tampon.
endometriosis abnormal condition of endometrium tissue appearing throughout the pelvis or on the abdominal wall. This tissue is normally found within the uterus.
pelvic inflammatory disease chronic or acute infection, usually bacterial, that has ascended through the female reproductive organs & out into the pelvic cavity. May result in scarring that interferes with fertility.
breast cancer malignant tumor of the breast. Usually forms in the milk-producing gland tissue or lining of the milk ducts.
fibrocystic breast disease benign cysts forming in the breasts.
abruptio placentae emergency condition in which the placenta tears away from the uterine wall prior to delivery of the infant. Requires immediate delivery of the baby.
eclampsia convulsive seizures & coma occurring in the woman between the 20th week of pregnancy & the 1st week of postpartum. Preceded by preeclampsia.
hemolytic disease of the newborn Condition that develops when the mother’s blood type is Rh- & the baby’s blood is Rh+. Antibodies in the mother’s blood enter the fetus’s bloodstream through the placenta & destroy the fetus’s red blood cells.
placenta previa A placenta that is implanted in the lower portion of the uterus and, in turn, blocks the birth canal.
preeclampsia Metabolic disease of pregnancy. If untreated, it may result in true eclampsia. Symptoms include hypertension, headaches, albumin in urine, & edema. Also called toxemia.
prolapsed umbilical cord when the umbilical cord of the baby is expelled first during delivery & is squeeze between the baby’s head & the vaginal wall. This presents an emergency since the baby’s circulation is compromised.
spontaneous abortion unplanned loss of a pregnancy due to the death of the embryo or fetus before the time it is viable. Miscarriage.
stillbirth birth in which a viable-aged fetus dies shortly before or at the time of delivery.
Pap smear test for the early detection of cervical cancer named after the developer of the test, George Papanicolaou, a Greek physician. A scraping of cells is removed from the cervix for examination under a microscope.
pregnancy test chemical test that can determine a pregnancy during the first few weeks. Can be performed in a physician’s office or with a home-testing kit.
hysterosalpingography taking of an x-ray after injecting radiopaque material into the uterus & fallopian tubes.
mammography using x-ray to diagnose breast disease, especially breast cancer.
pelvic ultrasonography use of ultrasound waves to produce an image or photograph of an organ, such as the uterus, ovaries, or fetus.
coloposcopy examination of vagina using an instrument called a colposcope.
culdoscopy examination of the female pelvic cavity, particularly behind the uterus, by introducing an endoscope through the wall of the vagina.
laparoscopy examination of the peritoneal cavity using an instrument called a laparoscope. The instrument is passed through a small incision made by the surgeon into the abdominopelvic cavity.
amniocentesis puncturing of the amniotic sac using a needle & syringe to withdraw amniotic fluid for testing. Can assist in determining fetal maturity, development, & genetic disorders.
Apgar score Evaluation of a neonate’s adjustment to the outside world. Observes color, heart rate, muscle tone, respiratory rate, & response to stimulus at 1 min and 5 min after birth.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis. May be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy than amniocentesis.
fetal monitoring Using electronic equipment placed on the mother’s abdomen or the fetus’ scalp to check the fetal heart rate (FHR) & fetal heart tone (FHT) during labor. The normal heart rate of the fetus is 120-160 bpm. A drop in fetal heart rate indicates the fetus is i
cervical biopsy taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells.
endometrial biopsy (EMB) taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus to test for abnormalities.
pelvic examination physical examination of the vagina & adjacent organs performed by a physician placing fingers of one hand into the vagina. An instrument called a speculum is used to open the vagina.
cesarean section (CS, C-section) surgical delivery of a baby through an incision into the abdominal & uterine walls. Legend has it that Julius Caesar was the first person born by this method
conization surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue. Also refers to partial removal of the cervix.
dilation and curettage (D&C) surgical procedure in which the opening of the cervix is dilated & the uterus is scraped or suctioned of its lining or tissue. Often performed after a spontaneous abortion & to stop excessive bleeding from other causes.
elective abortion legal termination of a pregnancy for nonmedical reasons.
lumpectomy removal of a breast tumor & the tissue immediately surrounding it.
radical masectomy surgical removal of the breast tissue plus chest muscles and axillary lymph nodes.
simple masectomy surgical removal of the breast tissue.
therapeutic abortion termination of a pregnancy for the health of the mother or another medical reason.
total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy removal of the entire uterus, cervix, both ovaries, and both fallopian tubes.
tubal ligation surgical tying off of the fallopian tubes to prevent conception from taking place. Results in sterilization of the female.
vaginal hysterectomy removal of the uterus through the vagina rather than through an abdominal incision.
abortifacient medication that terminates a pregnancy.
fertility drug medication that triggers ovulation. Also called ovulation stimulant.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) menopause or surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production. Replacing the hormone may prevent some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.
oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) birth control medication that uses low doses of female hormones to prevent conception by blocking ovulation.
oxytocin a natural hormone that begins or improves uterine contractions during labor and delivery.
AB abortion
AI artificial insemination
BSE breast self-examination
CS, C-section cesarean section
CVS chorionic villus sampling
Cx cervix
D & C dilation and curettage
EDC estimated date of confinement
EMB endometrial biopsy
ERT estrogen replacement therapy
FEKG fetal electrocardiogram
FHR fetal heart rate
FHT fetal heart tone
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
FTND full-term normal delivery
GI, grav I first pregnancy
GYN, gyn gynecology
HCG, hCG human chorionic gonadotropin
HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn
HPV human papilloma virus
HRT hormone replacement therapy
HSG hysterosalpingography
IUD intrauterine device
IVF in vitro fertilization
LBW low birth weight
LH luteinizing hormone
LMP last menstrual period
NB newborn
OB obstetrics
OCPs oral contraceptive pills
PAP Papanicolaou test
PI,para I first delivery
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PMS premenstrual syndrome
TAH-BSO total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
TSS toxic shock syndrome
UC uterine contractions
erectile dysfunction (ED) inability to engage in sexual intercourse due to inability to maintain an erection. Also called impotence.
sterility inability to father children due to a problem with spermatogenesis
cryptorchidism failure of testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth.An orchidopexy may be required to bring the testes down into the scrotum permanently. Failure of testes to descend could result in sterility or increased risk of testicular cancer.
hydrocele accumulation of fluid around the testes or along the spermatic cord. Common in infants.
testicular carcinoma cancer of one or both testicles; most common cancer in men under age 40.
testicular torsion a twisting of the spermatic cord
varicocele enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord that commonly occurs on the left side of adolescent males.
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland commonly seen in males over the age of 50
prostate cancer slow-growing cancer that effects a large number of males after age 50. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to assist in early detection of this disease
epispadias congenital opening of the urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis
hypospadias congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the penis
phimosis narrowing of the foreskin over the glans penis resulting in difficulty with hygiene. This condition can lead to infection or difficulty with urination. The condition is treated with circumcision, the surgical removal of the foreskin
priapism a persistent and painful erection due to pathological causes, not sexual arousal
chancroid highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer
chlamydia bacterial infection causing genital inflammation in males and females. Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females and eventual infertility
genital herpes creeping skin disease that can appear like a blister or vesicle, caused by a sexually transmitted virus
genital warts growth of warts on the genitalia of both males and females that can lead to cancer of the cervix in females. Caused by the sexual transmission of the human papilloma virus (HPV)
gonorrhea (GC) sexually transmitted bacterial infection of the mucous membranes of either sex. Can be passed on to an infant during the birth process
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexually transmitted virus that attacks the immune system
sexually transmitted disease (STD) disease usually acquired as the result of sexual intercourse. Formerly referred to as venereal disease (VD)
syphilis infectious, chronic, bacterial venereal disease that can involve any organ. May exist for years without symptoms, but is fatal if untreated. Treated with the antibiotic penicillin
trichomoniasis genitourinary infection caused by a single-cell protist that is usually without symptoms (asymptomatic) in both males & females. In women the disease can produce itching and/or burning, a foul smelling discharge, & vaginitis
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) a blood test to test for prostate cancer. Elevated blood levels of PSA are associated with prostate cancer
semen analysis procedure used during a fertility workup to see if the male can produce sperm.Semen is collected by the patient after abstaining from intercourse for 3-5 days & sperm is analyzed. Also used to see if a vasectomy was successful.
digital rectal exam (DRE) manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling) the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum
castration removal of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female
circumcision surgical removal of the end of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis. Generally performed on the newborn male at the request of the parents. The primary reason is for ease of hygiene. Circumcision is also a ritual practice in some religions.
orchidopexy Surgical fixation to move undescended testes into the scrotum and to attach them to prevent retraction. Used to treat cryptorchidism.
sterilization Process of rendering a male or female sterile or unable to conceive children
transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR, TURP) Surgical removal of the prostate gland by inserting a device through the urethra and removing prostate tissue.
vasectomy Removal of a segment or all of the vas deferens to prevent sperm from leaving the male body. Used for contraception purposes
vasovasostomy Surgical procedure to reconnect the vas deferens to reverse a vasectomy
androgen therapy Replacement of male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally
antiprostatic agents Medication to treat early causes of benign prostatic hypertrophy. May prevent surgery for mild cases
erectile dysfunction agents Medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction
spermatocide Destruction of sperm. One form of birth control is the use of spermatolytic creams
BPH benign prostate hypertrophy
DRE Digital rectal exam
ED Erectile dysfunction
GC gonorrhea
GU genitourinary
PSA prostate-specific antigen
RPR rapid plasma regain (test for syphilis)
SPP suprapubic prostatectomy
STD sexually transmitted disease
TUR transurethral resection
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
VD venereal disease
Created by: AltheaMathews