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Chapter 4 -Terms

The Establishment of West-European Leadership

Age of Louis XIV the age when France becomes the political and social center of Europe; from inheriting thrown/Peace of Westphalia/becoming officially in charge -- 1715; half a century
Grand Monarque nickname of Louis XIV; means 'Louis the Great'; during his reign, France developed its culture
Sun King nickname created by Louis XIV himself; meaning that everything revolves around the sun, and everything in France revolves around him; during his reign, France developed its culture
Charles II (of Spain) inherited Spain from Phillip II; last of the Hapsburgs to rule Spain because he can't have kids; big war faught over who gets his throwne
Rhine territory that Louis XIV wants to expand France into; upto this river; benefitting from the demise of the Hapsburgs
Franche-Comte territory that Louis XIV wants to expand France into; benefitting from the demise of the Hapsburgs
universal monarchy prior to Louis XIV, was threatened by Hapsburgs (stopped by Protestant Reformation, 30 Years War, Valios); irony: France helps stop threat of Hapsburgs, but later becomes the source of this threat
balance of power a coallittion of smaller states that band together to check Louis XIV's aggression; checking or balancing Louis's threat
liberties of Europe means the same thing as states rights, but taking about Europe as a whole; each country does their own thing, no European central power; are we gonna be Rome again or this?
William III archenemy of Louis XIV; 3rd William of the House of Orange in Netherlands; practically royal in Netherlands and becomes 3rd William to rule England
the "zone" of Western Europe (geography and historical significance) modern Europe is centured in Paris; England, Italy north of Florence, Switzerland, Dutch, North + West Germany
main goal of Louis XIV's rule inside, wants an absolute monarchy; outside, wants to take over Spain (universal monarchy)
Estates General of the United Provinces formal title for the Dutch government; republican country compaired to the time period
Arminians a subgroup of Dutch Calvinists; want Calvinism to be more faith-y, more modern, and no predestination
The more modern Europe gets, the more Protestants ____? merge/blend together to a faith-based religion
Bank of Amsterdam central back of Netherlands and Europe; golden standard of Europe at time
House of Orange super-noble family of Dutch (as close to royal as you can get in Netherlands); most land and most following; always turned to in times of crisis
English Navigation Act of 1651 England is angery at Dutch economic power; solution is to destroy the Dutch fleet by stopping English colonies from using Dutch ships; passed by Cromwell
English-Dutch Wars start after English Navigation Act was passed; Dutch was like 'no you cant' and England said 'f you yea we will and we'll replace you too'
hereditary stadholder each Dutch county elects one; in times of crisis (Louis XIV), people want a strong one, so everyone wants William II as it; dont want elections anymore, so WIII becomes hereditary stadholder (like monarchy, but not)
Hugo Grotius Dutch scientist; how countries should interact w/each other; nacent European Union
Baruch Spinoza Dutch scientist; theorized about separation of church and state
Chrisitan Huyghens Dutch scientist; telescopes and lenses
Congress of Westphalia every country west of Poland attended this Congress after 30 Years War
plantation of Ulster Protestant part of Ireland;
East India Company England's trading company over East Asia and Indian trade; allowed them to compete with Duch
House of Lords upper house of England's parliament; nobility
House of Commons lower class of England's parliament; gentry and towns representatives
Solemn League and Covenant agreement between Parliament and Scotland; join our side and if we win, we'll become protestant; convinces Scotland to join forces against Charles I; parliament doesnt hold up deal, causing Scotland to eventually flip sides after first stage of war
Rump Parliament 1648; the 60 or so members of Long Parliament that were left; guys are loyal to Cromwell from the beginning; "quality cut of meat"; executed Charles I
Levellers later known as advanced political democrats; wanted to "level" society by advocating equality; radical stuff for time
Fifth Monarchy Men group of Protestants against Anglican Church; believed that the end of the world was coming
Instrument of Government new constitution written by Cromwell after dissolving most of Long (Barebone) Parliament (justifies this illegal move); yeah... better set up my own thing
The True Law of Free Monarchy book written by James I; advocated absolute monarchy justified by divine rights
divine right of kings doctrine of James I; monarchy are representatives of God; justifies absolute monarchy
Puritans more extreme Calvinist Protestants; dissatisfied with Church of England; generally blaimed by modern England to be cause of English Civil War
Long Parliament called by Charles I because he wants money; eventually go to war with Charles; techincally the legal parliament until 1660
Roundheads derogatory nickname for Puritans (haircut)
Ironsides Cromwell's cavalry unit; so good and successful that it becomes Cromwell's claim to fame; eventually 'morphs' into New Model Army
Commonwealth during Cromwell's rule, England was not a kingdom but a this; 1649-1660; government is a protectorate
Quakers more extreme Protestants
Lord Protector title that Cromwell rules under; not a king, but this
moral puritianism value hard work; morally strict and disiplined; right and wrong mean a lot, stray from morality and its against the law
Charles II (England) restores the English monarchy in 1660; known as The Merry Monarch; doesn't want to push Parliament to extremes because of his father; wants toleration for Catholics
squirearchy lesser noble government; nobility is starting to gain political power as monarchy power decreases; upper nobility is House of Lords, lower nobility is local government
Dissenters people who disagree with the Anglican Church; couldn't govern or have religious meetings
conventicles Dissenter secret meetings; organizing the opposition
Queen Christina daughter of Adolphus who took power in Scotland; attempts to return country to Catholicism, not gonna work
Treaty of Dover secret treaty between Charles II and Louis XIV; Charles would join France in their war against Dutch in exchange for money
Duke of York aka James II; no one in England like him because he was Catholic; violates Test Act when appointing Catholics in positions of power; creation of a standing army; Catholic son with Catholic wife, can't wait him out
William and Mary William of Orange III and Mary II take power after glorious revolution in 1688; invited to take throne and agree to limitaions (Bill of Rights); first time monarch agrees to limitations, no longer absolute
United Kingdom of Great Britian once and for all Scotland is tied with England; France used Scotland before, but English dont want to worry about that; go in and take over and bring into kingdom
declaration of indulgence Charles II's announcement that it was okay for Dissenters and Catholics to hold political positions
Test Act law passed by Parliament requiring that any public officers be Anglican; responce to the declaration of indulgence
Whigs supported an alternitive to James II; wanted to get rid of him right way
Tories don't like James, but support his succession to the throne; can't just take away tradition
James II attempted to rule without Parliament as an absolute monarch (like it was 14/15th century) and assert his 'Divine Rights'; not prepped properly to rule
Boyne River where the only battle of the Glorious Revolution took place; forces under William II defeat forces led by James II; scares James off to France
English Bill of Rights terms that William and Mary agree to in order to become monarchs; first time monarchs agree to have major limitations; cant suspend laws, levy taxes w/out Parl; intertere w/freedom of speech; no petitioning king about grievances; no standing army in peace
Act of Settlement no more Catholics on English throne; namely, James's Catholic decendants can't inherit the throne
Toleration Act England's law tolerating Dissenters religiously, but not politically; opposite from Edict on Nantes in that okay for religion, but not treated as a citizen
The Fronde noble led rebellion against Cardinal Mazarin; wanted to weaken the kind supported by "parlements"; parle. withdraw support when nobles turn to Spain for troops; chaos convincing people maybe absolute monarchy is the way to go
Cardinal Mazarin on death, Louis XIV takes over and rules for himself; French nobility jumps out
l'etat, c'est moi "i am the state"; basically absolute monarchy, he is everythign
Bishop Bossuet like Jean Bodin to Henry IV; extention of absolute monarchy and Machiovelli
Versailles Louis XIV moves his headquarters to the newly built town; awes people and shows his power; becomes seat of government and houses great nobles (Louis XIV can keep an eye on them) and consolidate power; also away from riff-raff of Paris
lever, diner, coucher "to rise, to eat, to go to bed"; everything has to have a ceremony, even daily activities have to be a ceremonial process
J.B. Colbert minister of finance, economic advisor to Louis XIV; rise of mercantalism in France; get rid of internal tariffs (free trade zone)
Five Great Farms a free trade zone created by Colbert where there were no tariffs between the states
Commercial Code big name given to policies of Colbert; get rid of medival approach (get more money this way)
Old Regime 5 Bourbons who led France up to French Revolution: Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Louis XIV wants to unify French religion (gives him more absolute monarchy); economic blow, not real popular by Protestants
War of Devolution (1667) French attempt to gain Spanish Netherlands; blocked by a triple alliance of Dutch, English, Swedish; early example of the 'balance of power' policy
Dutch War (1672) French attack the Dutch provinces on the lower Rhine; William III allied with Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs, Prussia, Denmark; results in treaty of Nimweagan
Treaty of Nimweagan treaty of the Dutch War; France gives up its Dutch ambitions in exchange for Frenche-Comte
The War of the League of Augsburg (1688 - 1697) French invasion of territories of Alsace and Lorraine; Austria gathers Catholic powers into an allience against France and Protestant forces allies behing William III; Catholic and Protesant enemies of Louis XIV form League of Augsburg
Peace of Ryswick left matters much as they were before the War of the League of Augsburg; no real vicotry, but League of Augsburg is technical winner
War of the Spanish Succession (1702 - 1713) Charles II dies and is last Spanish Hapsburg; France and HRE fight over who will get the Spanish inheritance; would've split, but will of Charles II said not to; said grandson of Louis XIV should inherit throne, rest of West. Europe says 'uhuh' and fights
Peace of Utrecht result of War of Spanish Succession; Britain gets slave trade rights and other territories; Savory - Sardinia; Brandenburg -Prussia; Austria gets some Italian towns and Spanish Neths.; Spain keeps American possess.; Grandson of Louis XIV = king of Spain
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