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Cianci - Dalessandro

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

QuestionAnswer
Mechanism explained the world in terms of mechanical metaphors (language of machinery)
Francis Bacon father of empiricism and of experimentation in science, urged contemporaries to go out on their own search for new understanding of nature rather then paying too much attention to the past
Rene Descartes developed a scientific method that relies more on deduction than empirical observation and induction, categorized things of the word as either "thinking things", or "things occupying space."
Scientific induction scientists draw generalizations that are derived from and test hypotheses against empirical observations
Thomas Hobbes most original political philosopher of the 17th century, believed human reason reached no further than physical sensations
"Leviathan" by Thomas Hobbes, aimed to provide a rigorous philosophical justification for strong central political authority
John Locke most influential philosophical and political thinker of the 17th century, saw humans as creatures of reason and basic goodwill
First Treatise of Government by John Locke, rejected arguments for absolute government that based political authority on the patriarchal model of fathers ruling over a family
Second Treatise of Government by John Locke, provided an extended argument for a government the must necessarily be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed
"Letter Concerning Toleration" by John Locke, government didn't exist to impose religious uniformity, established powerful foundation for the future extension of toleration, religious liberty, and the separation of church and state
"Essay Concerning Human Understanding" by John Locke, portrayed a person's mind as a blank tablet which gained content by sense experiences
Thomas Hobbes believed that rulers... should be absolute and unlimited in their power
Created by: Cianci