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anatomy & physiology

muscles and joints

buccinator cheek muscle moves the cheek
temporal lower jaw
masseter biting and chewing moves lower jaw upward
trapezius pulls shoulder blade together muscle that extends across the back of the shoulder covers the back of the neck triangular shape
latissimus dorsi ** lower back extends to our axilla (armpit)
pectoralis major ** muscle that crossses the upper part of the front of the chest fan shaped
deltoid muscle covers the shoulder joint
gluteus maximus ** large muscle that offers support when an individual is standing fleshy part of the buttock
gluteus medius ** a smaller muscle located above the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks used for intramusular injection
hamstring muscles responsible for flexing the leg on the thigh posterior part of the thigh
gastrocnemius main muscle of the calf
tibialis anterior positioned on the front of the leg
arthralgia ** pain in the joints
atrophy ** wasting away
contracture ** an abnormal (usually permanent) bending of a joint into a fixed position caused by shortening and wasting away of muscle fibers
fascia ** thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue that penetrate and cover the entire muscle
insertion ** point of a attachment of muscle (more mobile)
involuntary muscle ** muscles that operate under conscious control
origin the point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that is less movable
pelvic girdle weakness ** weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle (muscular dystrophy)
skeletal muscles muscles that attach to the bones of a skeleton(known as striated muscles)act voluntarily
smooth muscles muscles found in the walls of the hollow organs and tubes
striated muscle ** muscles that have a striped appearance
tendon attaches to the bone
torso ** a.k.a trunk (midsection)
visceral muscle muscles of the internal organs
voluntary muscle muscles that operate under conscious control
muscular dystrophy group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue
rotator cuff tear a tear in the muscles that form a cuff over the upper end of the arm
strains a strain is an injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon resulting from overstretching, overextension or misuse (muscle pull)
muscle biopsy extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue for the purpose of examining it under a microscope
electromyography the process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current
fibrous joint the surfaces of the bones fit closely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue (immovable joint)
cartilaginous joint bones are connected by cartilage (limited movement)
synovial joint freely movable joints lined with a synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid
hinge joint allows movement in one direction (back and forth motion-elbow)
ball and socket joint allows movement in many directions around a central point (ball shaped head-shoulder and hip joint)
flexion bending motion decreases the angle
extension straightening motion increases the angle between to bones
abduction movement of bone away from the midline of the body
adduction movement of bone toward the midline of the body
rotation movement that involves the turning of a bone on its own axis
supination act of turning the palm up or forward
pronation act of turning the palm down or backward
dorsiflexion foot is bent backward or upward at the ankle
plantar flexion foot is bent downward at the ankle with the toes pointing downward (ballet dancing)
circumduction movement of an extremity around in a circular motion
articular cartilage thin layer of cartilage protecting and covering the connecting surfaces of the bones
bunion abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
bunionectomy ** surgical removal of a bunion bony overgrowth
bursa a small sac that contains synovial fluid for lubricating the area around the joint where friction is most likely to occur
closed reduction the manual forcing of a joint back into its original position without making an incision
crepitation clicking or crackling sounds heard upon joint movement
ganglionectomy surgical removal of a ganglion
joint cavity the space between two connecting bones
kyphosis humpback
ligaments connective tissue bands that join bone to bone
malaise a vague feeling of weakness
photosensitivity ** increased reaction of the skin to exposure to sunlight
sciatica ** inflammation sciatic nerve pain and tenderness the path of the nerve through the thigh and leg
subluxation ** an incomplete dislocation
suture ** an immovable joint (skull)
synovial fluid ** a thick lubricating fluid located in the synovial joints
synovial membrane the lining of a synovial joint cavity
viscous ** sticky
arthritis inflammation of the joints
dislocation displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint
ganglion cystic tumor developing on a tendon
gout a form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe
herniated disk rupture of the central portion or nucleus of the disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal (ruptured disk or slipped disk)
lyme disease acute recurrent inflammatory infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick
osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease results from wear and tear on the joints (weight-bearing joints hips and knees)
rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic inflammatory disease affects multiple joints of the body (hands and feet)
sprains injury involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint wrenching or twisting motion
systemic lupus erythematosus chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin joints nervous system kidneys lungs and other organs butterfly rash on both cheeks
arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint with a needle withdrawing fluid for analysis
arthroplasty surgical reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy the visualization of the interior of a joint using a endoscope
rheumatoid factor test is a blood test that measures presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases (rheumatoid arthritis)
Created by: heather1972



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