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Final Anatomy and Physiology class flash cards.

The two main divisions of the nervous system. CNS - Central Nervous System; PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
Afferent nerve pathways. Carry nerve impulses into the CNS.
Efferent nerve pathways. Carry nerve impulses away from the CNS.
The main structures of the CNS Brain and Spinal Cord
The main structures of the PNS Spinal Nerves and Cranial Nerves.
The three general functions of the nervous system. Input - Integration - Output
Where the cranial nerves branch off. The brain
Where the spinal nerves branch off. The spinal cord
What are the two general nervous tissue cells? Neurons and Neuroglia
These are more numerous nervous cells that provide structure and support, as well as speed up nerve impulses. Neuroglia
These are wirelike cells that transmit nerve impulses. Neurons
The major classifications of Neurons. Multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar neurons.
The part of neurons that process nerve signals. Cell body of neuron.
The part of neurons that carry nerve impulses towards the cell body. Dendrites
The part of neurons that carry nerve umpulses away from the cell body. Axon
These neurons are the most common type, are considered "motor neurons", and have many projections from the cell body. Multipolar neurons.
Neurons of the special sensory systems like sight, smell, hearing and equilibrium, and are the least common. Bipolar neurons.
General sensory neurons involved in the skin senses, like pain, temperature, touch and pressure. Unipolar neurons.
Sensory neurons are also called... Afferent neurons.
Motor neurons are also called... Efferent neurons.
These multipolar neurons occur soley within the CNS, never leaving the brain or spinal cord. Interneurons.
The two glial cells responsible for increasing the speed of nerve impulses are... Oligodendrocytes and Neurolemmocytes
These glia form myelin sheaths around CNS neurons. Oligodenrtocytes.
These glia form myelin sheaths around PNS neurons. Neurolemmocytes [Schwann Cells]
This structure of the nervous system is where the communication between neurons occurs. Synapse
These are hollow "sacks" containins chemichal messengers that emerge from the axon of the neuron. Synaptic vesicles.
These are the chemical messengers that attach at the dendrite of the receiving neuron. Neurotransmitters
These are the "locks" attached to the dendrite that receive the chemical messenger. Receptor sites.
These are neurotransmitters that say to continue the signal. Excitatory
These are neurotransmitters that stop the signal from continuing. Inhibitory
The space occupied by neurolemmocytes. Internode.
The space between the neurolemmocytes, or gaps in the myelin sheath. Nerve Fiber Node [Node of Ranvier]
Term used for the part of the axon wrapped by the neurolemmocyte. Myelinated.
Organs of transduction are ones that... convert mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy into electrochemical energy of the nervous system.
The types of receptors that sense temperature are thermoreceptors
The types of receptors that detect for taste and smell are called chemoreceptors.
The types of receptors that detect light are called photoreceptors
What do mechanoreceptors detect? Light touch, pressure, pain, and proprioception.
Which area of the brain is responsible for conscious thought, communication, memory, and voluntary muscle control? Cerebrum.
Which part of the brain coordinates muscular movements at a subconscious level? cerebellum.
The place where the synapsing and location of cell bodies pertaining to the brain is called gray matter ofthe brain.
The hemisphere that is responsible for spacial relation, and is considered the artistic side The right hemisphere.
The place of the brain occupied by myelinated axons and is pretty much nerve pathways is white matter of the brain.
The hemisphere that controls language/verbal skills, and math is The left hemisphere.
The lobe of the brain that initiates skeletal activity is... the frontal lobe.
The lobe of the brain that is the "self awareness" lobe is... the parietal lobe.
The lobe of the brain where vision is processed is... the occupital lobe.
The lobe of the brain where hearing is processed is... the temporal lobe.
In the spinal cord, the outer-most area that conatains tracts of myelinated axons white matter of the spinal cord.
In the spinal cord, the core, where the synapses and cell bodies is gray matter nuclei of the spinal cord.
Within the vertebral canal, the roots where all of the sensory neurons connect with the spinal cord is called... the dorsal roots.
Within the vertebral canal, the roots where all of the motor neurons connect with the spinal cord is called... the ventral roots.
The areas of spinal nerves where the roots merge, exit the intervertebral foramen, and contain both motor and sensory neurons are called... spintal nerve trunks.
The spinal nerve branches considered autonomic, (involuntary), and distribute neurons to smooth muscle tissues are... Visceral branches.
The spinal nerve branches that are considered mostly voluntary are... Somatic branches.
The rami that go to the skin and the postural muscles of the back are... Dorsal
The rami that go to the skin and the bodywall and limb muscles are... Ventral
(Cranial Nerve V) Trigeminal The nerve providing general sensation of the face.
(Cranial Nerve X) Vagus The nerve that aids in digestion and respiratory passageways, also motor control that slows the heart.
(Cranial Nerve IX) Glossopharangeal taste from posterior third of the tongue, inner side or the tympanic membrane, pharynx and larynx
(Cranial Nerve XI) Accessory Motor supply to SCM and Trapezius
This is a reflex or movement not requiring cranial input, causing a protection from injury or trauma. Flexor Withdrawl
These are sensory neurons used to detect the speed or length of a muscle stretch and will cause contraction to prevent damage to the tissue. Muscle Spindle Cells
The reflex or movement that engage muscle fibers when the muscle has moved too fast or too far in order to protect itself is called Stretch reflex
The sensory neuron in the collagen at the border of the muscle belly that tells the muscle to relax to protect it from tearing is called Golgi Tendon Organ
This is the division of the peripheral nervous system that is in charge of involuntary control. Autonomic Nervous System.
Fight or Flight caused by innervation of smooth muscle blood vessels, cardiac muscle, and sweat glands is controled by Sympathetic nervous system
Rest and Digest caused by innervation of smooth muscle of the gut tube and other internal organs of digestion is controlled by Parasympathetic nervous system
The two main divisions of the Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous systems
Loose connective tissue surrounding individual neurons is called Endoneurium
Dense Irregular connective tissue wrapping a bundle of neurons together into a fasciculus Perineurium
Dense Irregular connective tissue wraping a nerve Epineurium
The very protective tissues encasing CNS in bone, creating space for CSF to flow through, and surrounding the brain and spinal cord are called Meninges
The three layers of meninges surrounding the CNS Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater
The part made from Dura Mater that seperates the right and left hemispheres of cerebrum Falx Cerebri
The part made from Dura Mater that seperates the right and left sides of cerebelli Falx Cerebelli
The part made from Dura Mater that seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum Tentorium Cerebelli
Large channels between meningeal and periosteal dura that drains CSF and blood from brain tissues Dural venous sinuses
Created by: SUAHB