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Osteo= bone
Function skeleton (6 things) (1)support (2)Fat storage (3)protection (4)movement (5) ca&Phosphorus reserve (6)haemopoisis
Fn (1)support -structural framework -tendons-attach muscle to bones
Fn (2)fat storage -yellow bone marrow
Fn (6)haemopoisis -red bone marrow -producing blood
Fn (4)Movement -antagonistic muscles -joints provide leavers -amplified movement
Fn (5)Ca & phosphorous reserves -storage & release
Fn (3) Protection -hard -cranial (brain) -ribs (heart & lungs) -pelvic (ovaries)
Two main skeletal regions (1)axial (2)appendicular
(1)axial -ribcage, spine, cranium -support/protection -haemopoisis
(2)appendicular -outer limbs -movement -storage
long bone [Epiphysis] -end of bone -compression -no periosteum -thin outer cortex -trabeculae(beams& rods of support) -red bone marrow
long bone [Diaphysis) -centre -bending forces -periosteum -perforating sharpey's fibres -yellow bone marrow
perforating sharpey's fibres -long bone -diaphysis -connect periosteum to compact bone
Bone=specialised CT (made of) -fibres -ground substance -cells
Fibres (bone CT) -collagen -resists tension(pulling) -organic
Ground Substances (bone CT) -Ca10(PO4)6OH2 -inorganic -compression & sqeezing
Cells (bone CT) OSTEO -genic -blast -cyte -clast
Osteogenic -from stem cells -normally dormant -surface of bone & canals
Osteoblast -syn,deposition & mineralisation of osteoids -in layers under peri/endosteum
Oestoid -organic(mainly collagen) -other=proteoglycans & proteins -calcified -strong & dense -no diffusion
Osteocyte -mature bone -trapped in lacunae -communication through canaliculi -exchange nutrients & waste with blood
Osteoclast -bone destroying -fusion WBC progenitor cells -secrete acid & enzymes -location:bone reabsorption
Order of bone cell development osteogenic->osteoblast->osteocyte
calcification -forms oestoids -bone salt(hydroxyapatite) -nutrients can't diffuse freely -hard & dense
Bone growth -long bone grows in diameter -bone remodelling
Appositional growth -periosteum=active -osteogenic->oesteoblasts=osteoids+osteocytes -osteoblast->osteogenic/die -osteoids=fully calcified
Bone reabsorption -monocyte precursor from BV->osteoclast secret acids -osteoclast apoptosis (short life) -BVin new space
bone can't undergo _______ growth. WHY? -interstitial -too rigid -only by adding to surface
appositional growth & remodeling often occur _______ of one-another =? independently -=bone remodeling
long bone growing in length? endochondral ossification
Mature bone -lamellar -osteoblasts in layers=lamellae -collagen alternating 90* Win layer (Wstand F in all directions)
Spongy bone -trabecular -5x turnover than compact -lighter -irregular lattice -outward growth -medullary cavity(bone marrow) -inside -epiphysis support compact W multiple directional force -calcunae radiate outwards -BV for norishment
Osteon formation in compact bone (2types) (1)appositional growth of 1* osteon (2)osteoclast activitiy of 2* osteon
(1)appositional growth of osteon -near surface -new bone formed -around existing BV -osteoblast put down new bone forming ridges around BV -concentric lamellae fill inwards -bone grows outwards
(2)osteoclast activity of 2* oesteon -inside existing tissue -bone needs remodeling -'cutting core' through bone -osteoblast line tunnel -reduced to size of haversian canal
Compact bone function & location -strong & dense -outer layer -thicker exposed to large forces -outershell -diaphysis
Compact bone growth & blood supply -inwards of tunnel -BV in haversian & volkmann's canals
Spongy bone Function & location -support outer cortex of compact -F in lots direction -rapid Ca & P turnover -epiphysis -inside
spongey bone growth & blood supply -outwards -medullary cavity (bone marrow) -02 & nutrients in
Joints -pt where bones interconnect -movement -force transition -growth
Synarthrosis -immovable -V stable -axial
Amphiarthosis -slightly movable -av. stability
Diarthrosis -freely movable -low stability -appendicular
Simple synovial joint -not restricted by properties of tissues holding ends of bones together -end of bones=free (except articulate cartilage -instability
Synovial joint [4 common features] -articulate capsule -articulate cartilage -synovial fluid -joint cavity
synovial joint [articulate cartilage] -specialised hyaline -thin layer at end of bones -absorb shock -support heavy loads -near frictionless surface
chondrocytes (CELLS) -syn. joint -build, repair & maintain articulate cartilage -in lacunae -nests
Extracellular matrix of articular cartilage [syn. joint] -H2O & sol. ions -Fibres -gylcosamino/proteoglycans
Fibre [articulate cartilage] -EMC -collagen -'solid phase' fixed inside tissue -zonation patterns
water & soluble ions [articulate cartilage] -ECM -'fluid phase'=move in/out of tissue
Gycosaminoglycans & proteglycans [articulate cartilage] -ECM -'solid phase' -swelling & hydrating mech.
Glycosaminoglycan -repeating disacch. unit -negative charge -many attached to protein core=proteoglycan
Proteoglycans =many GAG attached to protein core -charges repel -bottle brush
PG complex -PG attached to hyaluronic acid chain -join to collagen fibres
[loading cycle] -ve charges.. -attract ions -incr.[ion] -osmotic flow -swelling of cartilage
[loading cycle] loaded equlibrium=? -swelling F=tension F
[loading cycle] load introduced -water & ions forced out -into joint space & syn. fluid
synovial joint [articulate capsule] -sleeve on ends of bone -tight during extremes -perforated W nerves & vessels -ligaments reinforce
Fibrous layer [articulate cartilage] -outer dense CT -interlacing collagen -cont. W periosteum -protections syn. mem. & joint -poorly blood -lots nerves
synovial membrane [articulate capsule] -inner loss CT -intima(synoviocytes secret fluid) -subintima (lots BV,macrophages,fat,fibroblast= maintainence & protection)
synovial joint [Joint cavity] -V small -btwn. articulating surfaces -mostly vili of syn. mem. in space
synovial joint [synovial fluid] -lubrication -shock abs. -chondrocyte met. -joint maintenance -from vessels in subitima & synoviocytes
Muscle functions (6) (1)convert ATP-->mech. E (2)movement-of gut,bones,heart (3)stability-joints,posture (4)communication-writing, reading etc (5)control openings & passages-sphincter,pupils (6)heat production-85%
Origin -attachement moves least during contraction (axial)
insertion -attachment moves most during contraction (appendicular)
osteotendinous junction -OTJ -tendon & bone
myotendinous junction -MTJ -muscle & tendon
Muscle belly contractile part of muscle
Muscle bundle of fasicles
epimysium -dense irr. CT -surround entire muscle & peri
perimysium -dense irr. CT -surround fasicles
Fasicles bundles of myocytes
endomysium -loose irr. CT -surrounding myocyte -nerves & caps W supply myocytes
Myocyte -muscle fibre -bundle of myofibrils
sacroplasm -area between myofibrils -glycogen & lipids
sacrolemma -cell mem. -rapid AP conduction
myofibril -many sacromeres
Sacromere -A, H band -Z disk
A band dArk
I band lIght
Z-disk closer during contraction
muscle & attachement to CT -epi/peri/endmysium blend -connect W CT-attaching to bone or muscle
Deep fascia -covers strutures of body -dense reg. CT -under skin & subcutaneous tissue
Compartments -muscles: supplied by same nerve, similar function, grouped -walls of fascia
Hypertrophy -incr muscle size (fibres) -myocyte incr, diameter -more myofibrils -stim. steriods or repeated contraction
anabolic steriods -variants of testosterone -incr. protein syn. -bad side effects:acne,hairloss,infertility
Atrophy -decr. monocyte size -muscle not used or been paralysed -normally reversed
Satellite cells -lie beside muscle Win basement mem. -repair damage to myocyte
function of skeletal CT [continuos epi/peri/endomysium] -organisation(muscle construction) -medium for BV&nerves(acess myocyte) -prevent XS stretch -distribute F
Desmin -hold adj. sacromeres -align sacromeres=pull in unison
Dystrophin -protein forms bridge btw. myocyte & CT -transmits F of contraction to endomysium
muscular dystrophy -disease -protein dystrophin transcribed properly/missing -monocyte tears easily
Created by: meglet



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