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zoo ch 10, 11, & 12

zoo ch 10 & 11

study of muscular system myology
describe how collagen connects beon, muscle, and tendons collagen fibers of the endo-, peri-, and endomysium of muscle continue into the tendons then from there into the periosteum and the matrix of bone
what is the main purpose of muscle tissue convert atp to kenetic energy
functions of muscle movement, stability, control of openings and passageways, heat production by skeletal muscles, and glycemic control
muscle fiber a skeletal muscel cell, long thread-like
endomysium loose connective tissue that surrounds each, muscle fiber
perimysium thicker layer of connective tissue, allows larger nerves and blood vessels
fasicle bundles of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium
epimysium fibrous sheath surrounding the entire muscle, connects perimysium to fascia
fascia external root sheath of connective tissue, separates whole muscles
what does a primer muscle do? produces most of force during a joint action
what does a synergist muscle do? aids the primer mover, stabilizes joint or modifies direction
what does a antagonist muscle do? opposes the primer muscle, relaxes to give primer mover control over action, pervents excessive movement and injury
what does a fixator muscle do? prevents movement of bone
which type of nerve innervates muscles below the neck? spinal nerves
which type of nerve innervates muscles above the neck? cranial nerves
sarcolemma plasma membrane
sarcoplasm cytoplasm
myofibrils long protien bundles made of glycogen (abundant energy storage) and myoglobin (red pigment, stores oxygen)
myoblast stem cells that fuse to form each muscel fiber
satellite cells unspecialised myoblasts remaining between the muscle fiber and endomysium
mitochondria packed into spaces between myofibrils
sarcoplasmic reticulum smooth er that forms a network around each myofibril
terminal cisternae dilated end sacs of SR which cross the muscle fiber from one side to the other
T tubules tubular infolding of the sarcolemma which penetrate through the cell and emerge on the other side
triad a T tubule and two terminal cisterns
myofiliments thick, thin, and elastic filaments
thick filaments made of hundreds of myosin molecules
myosin two chains intertwined to form a shaftlike tail and double head
thin filaments made of fibrous actin
fibrous actin two intertwined strands made of strings of globular actin subunits each with an active site that can bind to head of myosin molecule
tropomyosin molecules when a muscle is relaxed teoppomyosin blocks active sites on G actin subunits
troponin molecule small calcium binding protien on each tropomyosin
what is the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium reservior
what is the function of titin? stablizes thicj filament, centers it between the thin filaments, prevents overstretching
why does a defectin dystophin produce the disabling disease muscular dystrophy? because dystrophin transferes forces of muscle contraction to connective tissues
what is the chemical that is released from synaptic vesicles of a excited motor neuron at the neuromuscular joint acetylcholine
motor unit one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it
Structure of NMJ (nueromuscular junction) has a synaptic knob, synaptic cleft, schwann cell, synaptic vesicles, ACh receptors, juctional folds of sarcolemma and basal lamina
synaptic knob swollen end of nerve fiber that contains synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine (ACh)
synaptic cleft tiny gap between synaptic knob and muscle sarcolemma
schwann cell envelopes and isolates all of the NMJ from surrounding fluid so that ACh doesnt get washed away
synaptic vesicles undergo exocytosis releasing ACh into synaptic cleft
ACh receptors protiens incorporated into muscle cell plasma membrane
junctional folds of sarcolemma increase surface area holding ACh receptors
basal lamina thin layer og collagen and glycoprotein separates Schwann call and entire muscle cell from surrounding tissues, contains acetylcholinesterase that breaks down AH after contraction causing relaxation turning off contraction
spastic paralysis a state of continual contraction of the muscles, possible suffocation. example: tetanus
flaccis paralysis a state in which the muscles are limp and cannot contract, Example: botulism
length tension relationship the amount of tension generated by a muscle and the forece of contraction depends on how stretched or contracted it was before it was stimulated
muscle tone central nervous system continually monitors and adjusts the length of the resting muscle, and maintains a state of partial contraction called muscle tone
causes of rigor mortis deteriorating sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Ca, deteriorating sarcolemma allows Ca to reenter cytosol, Ca activates myosin-actin cross bridging, muscle contracts but cannot relax
what is the afferent neuron and decribe the direction the impulse travels sensory neuron, brings the impuls to the central nervous system
where is the trigger zone on a neuron? axon hillock
what is the function of dendrites and axons dentrites recieve signals from other neurons or sensory molecules and axons transfer impulses away from the soma
what are the glial cells that myelinate neurons of the CNS and PNS? CNS: oligodentrocites PNS: schwann
why do CNS neurons not regenerate because they have no schwann cells to make the regeneration tube
what happens at the neuron level to cause multiple sclerosis? oligodendrocites and myelin sheaths in the CNS deteriorate. myelin is replaced by hardened scar tissue, and nerve conduction is disrupted
main structure of the PNS (peripheral nervous system) all the nervous system except for the brain and spinal cord, composed of nerves and ganglia
main structure of the CNS (central nervous system) brain and spinal cord inclosed by cranium and vertebral column
what is the function of the sensory division carries sensory signals from various receptors to the CNS
what is the function of the motor division carries signals from the CNS to gland and muscle cells that carry out the bodies response
what is the function of the visceral sensory division carries signals from the viscera of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
what is the function of the somatic sensory division? carries signals from receptors in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints
what is the function of the visceral motor division carries signals to glands, cardiac muscles, and smooth muscles. involuntary
what is the function of the somatic motor division carries signals to the skeletal muscles
what is the function of the sympathetic division arous body for action. accelerates heartbeat and respiration while inhibiting digestive and urinary systems
what is the function of the parasympathetic division has calming affect. slows heartrate and breathing. stimulates digestive and urinary systems
sensory neurons afferent. specialized to detect stimuli and transmit information about them to the CNS
interneurons association neurons. lie within the CNS recieve signals from many neurons and carry out the integrative function
motor neurons efferet. send signals out to muscle and gland cells
soma of a neuron control center of the neuron
dendrites branches coming from the soma. recieves signals from other neurons
axon specialized for rapid conduction of nerve signals
axolemma plasma membrane of axon
myelin enclose axon
synaptic knob little swelling that forms a junction with the next cell
oligodendrocytes CNS raps around anerve fiber (myelin sheaths) forming an insulating layer that speeds up signal conduction
ependymal cells CNS line internal cavities of the brain. secretes and circulates cerebrospinal fluid (bathes the CNS)
microglia CNS white blood cell macrophages. wander in search of cellular debris and microorganisms to phagocytize
astrocyte CNS most abundant in CNS, cover entire brain surface and most nonsynaptic regions of the neurons
schwann cells PNS envelope nerve fibers. assist in the regineration of damaged fiber
satelite cells PNS surround the neurosomas in ganglia of the PNS. provide electrical insulation around the soma. regulate the chemical enviroment of the neurons
relationship between tumors and glial cells tumors are masses of rapidly dividing cells. mature neurons have little or no capasity for mitosis and seldom form tumors
myelation in PNS schwann cells spiral repeatedly around a single nerve fiber
myelation in CNS oligodenrocites reach out to myelinate several nerve fibers in its immediate vicinity
why is myelination important myelination in PNS allows motor cells to regenrate
what causes multiple sclerosis? oligodendrocites and myelin sheaths in the CNS deteriorate. myelin is replaced by scar tissue and nerve conduct is disrupted
what happens in Tay Sach's disease? abnormal accumulation of glycolipid in myelin sheath which disrupts nerve signals
what factors contribute to nerve conduction speed? diameter of fiber and presence or absence of myelin
where are slow signals generally used? supply the stomache and dilate the pupil were speed is less of an issue
where are fast signals generally used? suppl skeletal muscles and transport sensory (vision and balance)
what limits nerve regenration in CNS? no myelin sheath which allow cell regeneration
how does the generation tube assist nerve regeneration? guides the growing sprout back to the original target cells and reestablishes synaptic contact
what is nerve growth factor? a protien secreted by a gland, muscle, and glial cells and picked up by the axon terminals of the neurons. it prevents apoptosis (programed cell death) in growing neurons enabling them to make contact with their target cells
electrophysiology cellular mechanisms for producing electrical potantials and currents
electrical potential a difference in the concentration of charged particles between one point and another
electrical current a flow of charged particles from one point ot another
why is resting membrane potential negative? uequal electrolyte distribution between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid. there are more potasium atoms on the inside and more sodium atoms on the outside
at rest were is the greatest concentration of K inside
at rest were is the greatest concentration of ICF? inside
at rest were is the greatest concentration of Na? outside
at rest were is the greatest concentration of ECF? outside
local potential graded:proportional to stimulus strength, decremental: get weaker the farther they spread from point of stimulation, reversible: when stimulation ceases K returns the cell to its normal resting potential
action potential follows all or none law: if thresh hold is reached neuron fires at full potential, nondecremental: do not get weaker with distance, irreversible: once started goes to completion and cannot stop
when does depolarization in a neuron occur? during an action potential when polarity is reversed from RMP
when does repolarization occur? when the outflow of K shifts the voltage back to negative numbers returning it towards RMP
when does hyperpolarization occur? when K gate stay open longer than the NA gates and it drops the membrane voltage 1 or 2 mV and makes it more negative than the original RMP
absolute refractory period no stimulus of any strength will trigger AP
relatively refractory period only especially strong stimulus will trigger new AP
Created by: jelizabeth10



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