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The Nervous System


What shape is a nervous cell? Smooth or Stellate
What is another name for Cell Body? Soma
What is a Chromatophilic Substance comprised of? clusters of Ribosomes
Microtubules extending from the Axon are known as? Neurofibrils
Where Soma are concentrated they form? Ganglia or Nuclei
What are Dendrites? Short, highly Branched extensions of the cell body
What do Dendrites do? carry Impulses INTO/TOWARD the cell body
What is an Axon? Long, Slender extension of the cell body
What is the function of the Axon? to carry impulses AWAY from the cell body
What are Axons insulated by? Neuroglia
Why are Axons insulated? to protect them and other neurons from the electrical impulses traveling within them
Name 2 types of Terminal Filaments. Synapse and Neuromuscular Junction
What is a Synapse? a Terminal Filament when joined to a Dendrite of another Neuron
What is a Neuromuscular Junction? a Terminal Filament when joined at a Muscle cell
Define Amitotic. Cells NOT capable of cell division (replication) - Adult nerve cells
What are Neuroglia, and where are they found? they are Supportive Cells found among/AROUND neurons (axons)
Name 3 types of Neuroglia. Schwann Cells, Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes
What are Schwann Cells and what is their function? Neuroglia - 1. provide Support and Axon Insulation (myelination); 2. improve SPEED of Nerve Impulses
Where are Schwann Cells located? wrapped Around PERIPHERAL Neurons
What are Nodes of Ranvier? GAPS between Schwann Cells
What do Nodes do? serve as RELAY points for Nerve Impulses
What are Oligodendrocytes and where are they located? Neuroglia - wrapped around Central Neurons
What is the function of Oligodendrocytes? wrapped Around CENTRAL Neurons
What is the main difference between Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes? Schwann Cells insulate PERIPHERAL Neurons; Oligodendrocytes insulate CENTRAL Neurons
What are Astrocytes and where are they located? Neuroglia - Crowded among CENTRAL Neurons
What are the functions of Astrocytes? 1. Support and Link neurons to blood Capillaries; 2. regulate Diffusion --. contribute to the Blood-Brain Barrier
What are the Neuron Functional Types? Afferent (sensory), Efferent (motor), Interneurons (association)
What is the function of Afferent Neurons? impulses travel TOWARD Brain, FROM Sensory receptors in Skin and Organs
What is the function of Efferent Neurons? impulses travel AWAY from Brain, into Effectors (muscles/glands)
What are the functions of Interneurons? 1. transmit impulses BETWEEN Neurons in the CENTRAL nervous system; 2. help in ANALYSIS of SENSORY input and coordination of MOTOR output
What are the Neuron Structural Types? Multi-polar and Unipolar
Describe a Multi-polar Neuron. multiple Dendrites; one long Axon - usually in MOTOR function
Describe a Unipolar Neuron. one process SPLITS near cell body - usually in SENSORY function
What is the function of the Presynaptic Neuron? reacts to Arriving Impulses
What is the function of Synaptic Vesicles? Contain/Release Neurotransmitters
What is the Synaptic Cleft? narrow GAP between nerve cells
What is the function of the Postsynaptic Neuron? reacts to Neurotransmitters
What is the definition of Transmission? the Sequence of events in Impulse
What are the sequences of invents involved in Transmission? Presynaptic impulses --> rupture of Synaptic Vesicles --> release of Neurotransmitter --> new, Postsynaptic impulse(s)
What is the difference between the CENTRAL Nervous System and the PERIPHERAL Nervous System? CENTRAL Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord; PERIPHERAL Nervous System: Nerve Trunks leading To/From the Brain and Spinal Cord
Created by: kristel387