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Digestive system


enamel -hardest tissue -ca phosphate/carbonate -no sensation
Dentin -similar to enamel -have cells -ondontoblasts in pulp
Pulp -soft tissue -BV, lymphatic, nerves
Cementum -calcified CT -covers root
periodontal ligament -collagen fibres -connect bone of socket to cementum -rapid turnover
Tongue muscles -longitudinal -transverse -vertical -movement in all directions
Tongue surface papillae=fungiform + filiform + circumvallate
Salivary glands (3 types) -(1)parotid -(2)submandibular -(3)sublingual
salivary glands function -parasympathetic stimulation -smell,taste,thought,seeing food -saliva=water+mucous+enzymes -lysozymes & amylase
Lysozyme & amylase -antibacterial -breaks down starch debri
peritoneal cavity -serous fluid
large folds -bind organs together & to abdominal cavity -contain BV,lymphatics & nerves
Greater omentum -largest fold -drapes over colon & small instest. -fatty apron
Falciform ligament -liver to ab. wall & diaphragm
lesser omentum -suspends stomach & dueodenum from liver
mesentry -jejunium & ileum to ab. wall -double layered
four tunics of the gut (1)mucous membrane (2)submucous membrane (3)external SM (4)serosa
(1)mucous membrane -epithelium(protection & absorption) -lamina propria (soft CT,defensive cells, BV lymph,nerves) -muscularis mucosae(mucous)
(2)submucosa membrane -thick bed CT -BV, lymph, nerves -movement & connection betwn. muscle & mucosa
(3)smooth muscle -peristalisis -inner=circular -outer=longitudinal
(4)serosa -slippery outer covering -2layered -outer mesothelium in CT
Esophagus function -transport -protection -little secretion -noabsorption
Esophagus 4 normal layer except: -lacks serosa -SM & skeletal muscle in upper -sacrificial mucous mem.
stomach -4regions -Fundus -cardia -body -pylorus
Stomach functions (5) -secretion:enzyme,acids -Absorption:H2O,ions,drugs -digestion:by pepsin -transport:mixing waves -protection:against microbes
Stomach 4 layers usual except: -pits in epithelial -secreting cells -3-layers external muscle
mucosa of stomach (cells involved) -surface mucosa -undifferentiated -mucous neck cells -parietal -chief cells -gastrin (enteroendocrine)
Surface mucosa cells -insoluble -alkaline mucus -protects from acids & pepsin
Chief cells -lipase -pepsinogen-->pepsin by acid
Undifferentiated -stem cells -divide forming new epithelium
parietal cells -HCl kills microbes
Gastrin cells (enteroendocrine) STOMACH -gastrin(in blood)stim: secretion of pepsinogen & acid, muscle contraction, pyloric sphincter relaxation
mucous neck cells -soluble alkaline mucous -mealtimes
Liver -huge gland -made of hepatocytes (epi.cells) -derived from embryonic endoderm
Hepatocytes Functions (4) -multitalented(more than 500 diff. met. fn) -glycogen/glucose storage & release -bile syn. & secretion -syn. plasma proteins -removal of toxins
Hepatocyte requires..? (3) -nutrient laden blood -oxygenated blood -ducts(drain bile)
Pancreas -dual organ -endocrine & exocrine
Pancreas [exocrine] -manufactures precursor digestive enzy -secret alkaline "pancreatic juices" -active in duodenum
Pancreatic enzyme digest... -most food substance -lipids, proteins, carbs, nuceic acids)
Pancreas [endocrine] -secrete hormones into blood stream -reg. blood glucose (insulin & glucagon)
Small intestine (3 parts) -dueodenum -jejunum -ileum
Duodenum Fn -biliary & pancreatic ducts
jejunum Fn -primary chem. digestion & nutrient absorption
Illeum -terminates at ileocecal sphincter -controls entry of materials
Small intestine usual except: -specialised mucosa incr. SA -submucosa downstream from pyloric contains mucous glands
glands of brunner -in small intestine -below pyloric sphincter -mucous gland
Increasing SA in small intestine (3) (1)plicae (2)villi (3)microvilli
incr. SA (1)Plicae -circular folds -1cM -mucosa surrounding -submucosa in core
incr. SA (2)villi -fingers -1mm -epi. covers -lamina propria covers
incr. SA (3)microvilli -finger -1mircoM -brush border -on indiv. absorptive cells -cell mem. covers -cytoplasm inside
Paneth cells -bactericidal enzyme lysozyme(phagocytic)
Goblet cells secret mucus
Epithelial cells in small instestine are............? short lived
lymph vessel in villi [small instestine] -lacteal -SM fibres contract & lymph milked along
enteroendocrine cells stimulated by ______ which cause secretion of ______ -arrival of chyme -secretin=stim. pancreatic juices released
Large intestine functions (5) (1)absorption(salt&water) (2)secretion(mucus) (3)defacation (4)conversion(chyme->feces) (5)bacteria (produce vits)
ileocecal valve -controls flow chyme -illeum->cecum
7 parts of large intestine cecum -appendix -ascending colon -transverse colon -descending colon -haustra -sigmoid colon -rectum
cecum -dilated pouch -bacteria digest here (not enzymes)
Appendix -vestigial
large intestine usual except: MUCOSA -no vili -enterocytes -goblet no paneth -renewal of wall -many lymphocytes
large intestine usual except: External muscle -longitudinal muscle contract to form pockets (Haustra coli)
mucosa of colon -columnar absorptive (enterocytes) -goblet -undiff. -WBC
Created by: meglet



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