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Respiratory system


External Respiration -in lungs -O2 in -CO2 out -exchange with blood to pulmonary ciruit
Internal Respiration -gases exchanged between blood & tissue
Cellular Respiration -breakdown material -gain energy
Pulmonary ventilation -breathing -bulk air moving in/out of lungs -pump=diaphragm, ribcage & muscles
conducting airways -air between nose & deep Win lungs -thick walled -warms, humidifies & cleans air [nasal cavaties, trachea, pharynx larynx, bronchi/oles]
Respiratory airways -gases exchanged -tiny thin walled - [bronchioles, alveoli]
Nasal cavity + (4 parts) -mucous membrane -tall narrow -filters, warms & humidifies (1)medial surface (2)paranasal sinus (3)roof cavity (4)axons
(1)medial surface [nasal cavity] -flat, lateral -3 sloping conchae -incr. SA of mucous membrane
(2)paranasal sinus -lighten face -add resonance to voice -air-filled
(3)roof cavity -carries olfactory epithelium -sniffing carries air up
(4)Axon -of olfactory receptor cells -lead to brain
Pharynx -Naso(air) -oro(food&air) -Laryngo(food&air) -1*gastrointestinal
pattern of branching of airways *trachea->term. broichioles=conducting *term.bronchioles->alveolar sacs=respiratory
Trachea -C-shaped cartilage -trachealis muscle connects -ciliated epithelium psuedostratified columnar
wall of bronchus -psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium -goblet cells & mucus glands -SM -cartilage plates -alveoli
Wall of bronchioles -ciliated columnar epithelium -clara cells -SM -no cartilage,goblet or mucous cells
Goblet cells -thick
Mucous cells -thick & watery -serous mucous
Clara cells -watery substance -prevents walls sticking together
Alveoli network of capillaries rapped around single alveolus
alveolar sac -several bunched alveoli
alveolar duct -corridor of alveoli & alveoli ducts
diffusion barrier ~0.1micrometre
Cartilage -supports airways -not past small bronchi (along with mucous glands)
thickness of epithelium proportional to... ....diameter -epi incr.=diameter incr.
smooth muscle in relation to size of airways -smaller airways have more SM proportional to size -no SM past bronchioles
Lobes of lung -R=3 -L=2
segments of lung -3* bronchi supply -have own air & blood supply
segments [clinical significance] -surgeons know boundaries -prevent excessive leakage of air & blood
Pleurae -SM covers each lung & lines thoracic cavity -2 layers continuous to roof (hilium) of lung -fluid prevents friction of layers
Ventilation movement of ribs [expiration] -internal intercostal muscles contract -active during forceful exhalation -drags ribs down
Ventilation movement of ribs [inspiration] -external intercostal muscles contract -lifts ribs -incr. vol thoracic
Ventilation movement of diaphragm -diaphragmatic muscle contraction= inspiration -relaxation=passive expiration -~75% bulkflow air
tidal breathing same pipes for in & out
Functional residual capacity=? -amount of air in lungs after normal experation
Residual volume -minimum voluntary volume
tidal volume ranges from residual volume to total lung capacity
mechanics of breathing -lung devoid of muscles -Pressure grad for movement -alveoli<atms
exhalation alveoli Pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure
inhalation alveolar Pressure is less than atmospheric
lungs -highly elastic -collapse to 0vol.
balance of forces (lungs) -between collapsing lung & recoiling ribcage -at functional residual capacity
ribcage experiences forcre -causes it to spring outward -F from stretched tissue in sterno-costo vetebral joint
pneumothorax -air in interplueral space -breaks cohesiveness -lungs collapse -chest recoils outwards
factor effecting exchange of air (1)compliance (2)resistance (3)dead space (4)diffusion
(1)compliance -change-in Vol/change-in P -distensibility of lungs & chest wall -inverse to stiffness
(2)resistance -change-in P/change-in flow -how hard to push
P-V relationship of lungs [low vol.] -V compliant -lots P to overcome surface tension
P-V relationship of lungs [open alveoli] -distend relatively easily -till near inflation
Air resistance -flow depends of diff in P & R through airways -mouth & nose contribute alot -R greatest at medium 3* bronchi -R decr. as tot-xsect. A incr.
Dead space -no exchange of gases in vol. -dilutes tidal inspiration
Fick's law Vol. of gas exchange proportional to area
Respiratory distress syndrome -surface tension in alveoli by air-water interface -pulm. surfactant reduces tension -absent in babies
emphysema -alveolar & peri bronchi tissue damage -bronchioles collapse -FRC incr=barrel chest
asthma -bronchiole constriction -incr. muscular effort -labour breathing
pulmonary edema -water in alveolar space -incr diffusion distance -slower rate of gas exchange
universal gas law P=nRT/V -P proportional 1/V
partial pressure -P required to keep plunger still -keep gas from escaping out of solution
Daltons law P tot= sum of PP on individual constituents
Henry's law conc = sol. x pressure
CO poisoning -binding of O2 to Hb blocked -decr. HbO2 sat
Anemia -haemoglobin reduced -derc. tot O2 bound -even though Hb 98% sat
CO2 transport -high sol. in simple solution
Alveolar ventilation -replenished supply of O2 -reg. to maintain constant PP of O2 & CO2 -changes due to metabolism
Hyper-ventilation [consequences] -accum. O2 in alveoli -incr. P O2 -decr. CO2 & P -incr. blood pH
alkalotic coma -due to blood pH becoming basic -incr. pH -hyper-ventilation
Hypo-ventilation -decr. O2 in alveoli P -accum. CO2 -incr. P CO2 -decr. pH -acidosis
Acidotic coma -arterial blood acidic -pH decreases -Hypo-ventilation
Response to altered inspiratory Pi O2/CO2 -O2=low (flat region) -CO2 & pH=greater
Respiratory centres in CNS -nueral input=brainstem -motor nuerons -in medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata -Dorsal resp. grp= inspiration -Ventral resp. grp= varies
Slowly adapting stretch receptors -on bronchi/oles -activated lung inflation -myelinated fibres in vagus -term. lung inhal.
irritant sensors -mech&chem stimuli -hyperinflation -response to allergies -cause:coughing, incr mucous secretion
Feedback from chemoreceptors -carotid & aortic bodies -detect changes in P(CO2&O2) -informs resp. control centre -maintain blood gases
Carotid -bifurcation of common carotid arteries -highly vascularised blood flow -respond(P): decr.O2, Incr.CO2
aortic bodies -aortic arch & subclavian arteries -afferents in vagus nerve
Central chemo receptors -ventral surface of medulla -sensitive to pH changes in cerebral fluid
Intrinsic sensitivity to Pa O2 + CO2 -measuring vent. reponse to changing each while others constant -V sens. PO2
Involuntary [conflicting requirements] -ventilation -coughing -sneezing -sighing -spitting
voluntary [conflicting requirements] -ventilation -singing, whistling,speech -urination
Created by: meglet



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