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AHuman Struc test 2

QuestionAnswer
What week of development does formation of the branchial apparatus and stomodeum occur? fourth week as neural crest cells invade head and neck lateral to rostral foregut
What is the source of all connective tissue including skeletal components? neural crest cells
What makes up the branchial apparatus? branchial clefts [grooves], branchial arches, and branchial pouches
What are branchial clefts [grooves] derived from? ectoderm
What are branchial arches derived from? cephalic paraxial mesoderm
What are branchial pouches derived rom? endoderm
The branchial apparatus is shaped like a figure 8. what is the divet on the lateral side? What is inside the 8? What is the divet on the medial side? branchial groove [cleft], branchial arch, branchial pouch
Where do branchial arches form on the embryo? lateral side
What do branchial arches form? cartilage, muscle, arteries, and nerves
what does meckel’s cartilage form and what arch and prominence does it come from? mandible, malleus, incus, sphenomandibular ligament; arch 1; mandibular prominence
what does the maxillary prominence form? maxilla, zygomatic bone, squamous portion of temporal bone
what nerve is from branchial arch 1? maxillary and mandibular NN [ so would innervate same MM as mandibular normally does, remember max is just sensory.]
What is first arch syndrome? mandibular hyopoplasia [incomplete or underdeveloped organ], facial abnoramalities resulting form failure of neural crest cells to migrate into the first arch
What is another name for first arch syndrome? Treacher Collins Syndrome
What is hypoplasia? incomplete or underdeveloped organ
What does Reichert’s cartilage form, which arch does it come from? stapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament; from arch 2
What N comes from arch 2? And what MM would be innervated by arch 2? Facial N; MM of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastrics
What does arch 3 form?, what N comes from it? What M does it innervate? greater horn of hyoid, glossopharyngeal N; stylopharyngeus M,
What cartilage does arch 4 and 6 form? cartilage of larynx except epiglottis [thyroid, cricoids, arytenoids, corniculate, cuneiform]
What N comes from arch 4? And what does it innervate? superior laryngeal branch of vagus N; most pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, levator veli palatine
What N comes from arch 6? And what does it innervate? recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus N; all intrinsic MM of larynx except cricothyroid M
What does the first branchial cleft turn into? external auditory canal
What does branchial cleft 2-4 form? temporary cervical sinuses that are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch mesenchyme
What is branchial malformation? persistent cervical sinus forming a branchial cleft cyst within the lateral neck
What does the 1st branchial pouch form? middle ear, Eustachian tube, mastoid air cells, tympanic membrane
What does the 2nd branchial pouch form? epithelial lining of palatine tonsil
What does the 3rd branchial pouch form? dorsal portion develop into inferior parathyroids and ventral portion develops into thymus- these structures will eventually move below 4th branchial pouch structures
What does the 4th branchial pouch form? dorsal- superior parathyroids
What is DiGeorge Syndrome? aberrant [not normal] development of 3rd and 4th pouches which leads to T-cell deficiency[thymic aplasia], hypocalcemia [wrong parathyroid development], facial abnoramlities [low-set ears and small mouth], and cardiac defects
What is aberrant? departing from normal or accepted standard
What is the thyroid diverticulum connected to the tongue by? thyroglossal duct which normally disappears but may persist as the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid
What is the developmental structure that the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid came from? thyroglossal duct
What is the normal remnant of the thyroglossal duct? foramen cecum
What ist he thyroid diverticulum? structure that thyroid is derived from
What is thyroglosssal duct cyst? most common congenital cyst in neck, in midline of neck, caused by remnants of the thyroglossal tract along its descent from the foramen cecum
What is the stomodeum? precursor to anterior 2/3 of oral cavity
What separates the stomodeum from the foregut? oropharyngeal membrane
What lines the stomodeum? ectoderm
What is Rathke’s pouch? glandular outgrowth of ectoderm from the stomodeum which gives rise to the anterior lobe of the pituitary
What is musculature derived from? paraxial mesoderm
What divisons does the paraxial mesoderm give rise to? 7 paired somitomeres; 4 paired occipital somites; myotome
Ocular myotome comes from what division of paraxial mesoderm? And what N innervate it? somitomeres; 3,4,6
What division of paraxial mesoderm does tongue myotome come from? And what nerve innerveates? occipital somite; hypoglossal N
What is the trochlea of the superior oblique M? a pulley structure in the eye. The tendon of the superior oblique muscle passes through it., it is the only cartilage found in the normal orbit.
What does the inferior oblique M do? extorsion [lateral rotation], elevation, abduction
What goes through the posterior ethmoidal foramen?
-posteiror ethmoidal N and vesseles
What goes through the anterior ethmoidal foramen?
Anterior ehtmoidal N and vessels
What is in the fossa for lacrimal sac? lacrimal sac that drains into the nasolacrimal duct
What goes through the inferior orbital fissure? Maxillary N and zygomatic branch of maxillary N
What goes through the optic canal ? optic N and opthalmic A
What innervates the levator palpebrae superioris M? duely innervated by not only the oculomotor N but sympathetic N fibers
Descibe the visceral effeerents of the eye. What NN are involved? Where do they come from? Are they para or sympathetic? Long ciliary N [come from nasociliary which comes from opthalmic N ] do sympathetic N of pupil dialtor and short ciliary from the oculomotor N does parasympathetic for ciliary body and iris for accomodation and making pupil larger
What kind of fibers does the long ciliary n have? And what N does it arrise from? postganglionic sympathetic fibers; nasociliary N from opthalmic N
What kind of fibers does the short ciliary n have? And what N does it arrise from? postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers; short ciliary ganglion from oculomotor N
How do you test the corneal blink reflex? blow on the cornea or touch it with a wisp of cotton
What is the cornea blink reflex? And what is the afferent and efferent limbs? when you close the eyeor contract the orbicularis oculi MM; affernet= nasociliary N of the ophthalmic division of trigeminal N; efferent- facial N. [NOTE: levator palpebrae superioris opens eye and is not part of reflex.]
s the nasal retinal field your peripheral or medial vision? peripheral
Is the temporal retinal field your peripheral or medial vision? medial
What is right nasal hemianopsia? when you can not see the medial part of your right eye vision; caused by severing the outer half of the right optic N, chiasm, or tract
Where odes your nasal field go on the retina? to the temporal retina
Where does your temporal field go on the retina? to the nasal retina
What is left homonymous hemianopsia? when you can not see the left part of your visual field out of either eye. This is caused by severing the right optic tract.
What is bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia? when you can not see the tempotsl fields of either eye due to severing the optic chiasm
What is hemianopia? blindness inhalf of the visual field
What is a perichiasmal lesion? outer lesion of the optic chiasm
What could cause a perichiasmal lesion? aneurysm of the internal carotid artery
What is an optic radiation? lower down the optic tract past the lateral geniculate ganglion on its way to the visual cortex
What are the 3 layers of the inner eye from outer to inner? sclear, choroid, retina
If you passed a needle through the cener of the eye what would you hit? cornea, aqueous humor [anterior chamber], pupil [iris on side], lens, vitreous humor, retina, choroid, sclera, outside back of eye
Why would you go blind if you damaged the central retinal artery and vein? no anastamoses
What does the sphincter M of the pupil do? What fibers does it have? makes pupil smaller, parasympathetic
What does the dilator M do? What fibers does it have? makes pupil larger, sympathetic fibers
When the lens is fat what can you see? things that are close
When the lens is stretched what can you see? things that are far away
What does the ciliary body do and what nerve fibers innervate it? accomodation of lens, parasympathetic from oculomotor
If you damaged the short ciliary N then what MM would not work? sphincter and dilator MM, although the dilator may still work because it is innervated by the long ciliary N as well[from nasociliary and opthalmic N]. Remember the short ciliary are from oculomotor N.
Explain the pupillary light reflex? both pupils should constrict. The one with light in it is the direct reflex and the other is consensual reflex
What is the afferent nerve in the pupillary light reflex and what is the efferent nerve? afferent= optic nerve, efferent= oculomotor N; paratympathetic nerve fibers
What is horner's syndrome? injury to cervical sympathetic fivers that causes miosis [pupil can not dilate] and ptosis [ upper eyelid is drooping from paralysis of the smooth M part of the levator palpebrae superioris]
Other than the miosis and ptosis caused by horner's syndrome, what are some other symptoms? Enophthalmos, anhidrosis, and vasodilation
What is miosis? constriction of the pupil due to paralysis of dilator pupillae M
What is ptosis? dropping of upper eyelid from paralysis of the smooth M part of the levator palpebrae superioris]
What is enophthalmos? retraction of eyeball into orbit from paralysis of orbitalis M which is smooth M and functionsin eyeball protrusion
What is anhidrosis? absence of sweating
What is vasodilation? increased blood flow increased blood flow
What goes through the common tendinous ring? abducens N, oculomotor NN, nasociliary N [from opthalmic N], ophthalmic A, optic N. NOT OPTHALMIC V, NOT FRONTAL OR LACRIMAL FROM OPTHALMIC, NOT TROCHLEAR, ALSO NOT LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS OR THE SUPERIOR OBLIQUE M
What is crocodile tears syndrome? lacrimation during eating by a lesion of facial nerve proximal to geniculate ganglion causing the misdirection of regeneration of parasympathetic fibers from the submandibular gland to the lacrimal gland
What is retinitis pigmentosa? degeneration of photoreceptor cells marked by tunnel vsion or loss of peripheral vision
What is macular degeneration? degernative change in the macula, no central vision or a ring of peripheral vision, occurs indry form [nonneovascular] and wet form [neovascular] caused by growth of abnormal blood vessels which tends to leak
What is diabetic retinopathy? degenerative disease and causes blindness, by microaneurysms, hemorrhages, macula edema
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? I Olfactory Cribiform Plate ; SVA ; Smell
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? II Optic Optic Canal ; SSA ; Vision
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? III Oculomotor Sup. Orbital Fissure ; GVE, GSE ; Ciliary Ganglion (pupil), Inf. Oblique, Inf. Rectus, Sup. rectus, Levator Palpebrae, Med. Rectus
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? VI Trochlear Sup. Orbital Fissure ; GSE ; Superior Oblique
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? V1 Ophthalmic Sup. Orbital Fissure ; GSA ; Eyeball, tip of nose, skin above eyes
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? V2 Maxillary Foramen Rotundum ; GSA ; Midface, palate, sinuses, maxillary teeth
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? V3 Mandibular Foramen Ovale ; SVE, GSA ; Muscles of mastication, Tensor Veli Palatini, Tensor Tympani, Lower part of face, scalp, jaw, mandibular teeth, ant. tongue
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? VI Abducens Sup. Orbital Fissure ; GSE ; Lateral Rectus
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? VII Facial Stylomastoid Foramen ; SVE, GVE, GSA, SVA, GVA ; M. Facial Expression, Pterygopalitine & Submandibular Gang. ,Tympanic Plexus, Ext Ear, Ant. Tongue (taste), Palate/Nasal Mucosa
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? VIII Vestibulocochlear None, Stays in temporal bone ; SSA ; Hearing, Vestibular Apparatus
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? XI Glossopharyngeal Jugular Foramen ; SVE, GVE, GSA, SVA, GVA ; Stylopharyngeus M., Otic Ganglion (Parotid), Tympanic Plexus, Ear, Post. Tongue (taste), Carotid Body, Pharyngeal mucosa
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? X Vagus Jugular Foramen ; SVE, GVE, GSA, SVA, GVA ; Pharyngeal, Laryngeal Muscles, Foregut, Midgut, Heart, Tympanic Plexus, Epiglottis (taste), Pharyngeal Mucosa, Carotid Sinus, Heart, Foregut, Midgut
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? XI Accessory Jugular Foramen ; SVE ; Sternocleidomastoid, Trapezius
What foramen does the following N exit? What is it’s nerve fiber component? And what are all the things that it innervates, be specific? XII Hypoglossal Hypoglossal Canal ; GSE ; Tongue Muscles
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? I Olfactory Anosmia – loss of smell
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? II Optic Nerve = Ipsilateral blindness & loss of pupillary light reflex; Chiasm = bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia (tunnel vision); Tract = contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? III Oculomotor Paralysis of ocular muscles, dilation of pupil, loss of accommodation & pupillary light reflex
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? VI Trochlear Paralysis of Sup. Oblique M.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? V1 Ophthalmic Loss of skin sensation above eyes, eyeball, and scalp. Loss of afferent corneal reflex.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? V2 Maxillary Loss of skin sensation in the midface, loss of afferent limb of sneeze reflex
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? V3 Mandibular Loss of skin sensation of lower face, Loss of mastication with mandible deviation towards lesion, loss of jaw jerk reflex.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? VI Abducens Paralysis of Lateral Rectus M. causing medial deviation of the eyeball.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? VII Facial Facial paralysis, taste to ant. tongue. Loss of salivation, nasal secretion, and lacrimal secretion. Loss of efferent limb of corneal reflex. Carotid body and sinus disruption.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? VIII Vestibulocochlear Loss of hearing, vertigo, and ringing in the ears.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? XI Glossopharyngeal Paralysis of Stylopharyngeus M., loss of taste on posterior tongue. Loss of Efferent innervation to otic ganglion, Afferent innervation to pharynx. Loss of afferent limb of gag reflex.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? X Vagus Efferent - loss to pharynx (except stylophar) & palate (except tensor VP), epiglottis taste, smooth M, cardiac M, & glands. Afferent - loss to larynx, pharynx, etc; Uvula deviates to opp side of lesion. Lose cough, sneeze & efferent limb of gag reflex
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? XI Accessory Paralysis of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.
What happens if you have a lesion to the following cranial nerve? XII Hypoglossal Paralysis of tongue muscles except palatoglossus (vagus). Deviation of tongue toward injured side on protrusion.
What does the ear do? Transduce sound from wavesinto neural signals and Amplify
What N is involved in the nausea factor of a sense of inbalance? vagus N because it goes to the tummy
What controls eye movements and is it voluntary or involuntary? Don’t have voluntary contol of eyes. All movements of eyes are reflexes. Controlled by vestibuloapparatus. Don't understand but whatever….
What type of cartilage is in the ear? hyaline
What does the auricular cartilage form from? single complex plate formed from embryological primoridea
Where is the cartilaginous portion of the external auditory canal located and where is the bony portion? cartilage- beginning, bony- end; remember thin and attenuated epithlium at the very end near the tympanic membran. So really the meatus is the bony part and the canal is not.
What does attenuated mean? unnaturally thin
Which part of the canal is longer superior or inferior? inferior
In what direction is the light focused in the ear? Because tympanic membrane is not flat it is focusing the light anterior and inferior.
What are the boundaries of the external ear? pinna to tympanic membnrae
Explain the layers of the ear drum and it's significance? there are 2 layers inner and outer. The outer is formed by stratified squamous epithelium and is continuous with the external auditory canal so it is shed and as it is shed wax is pushed out of the ear.
What could be the reason for not seeing the cone of light on the tympanic membrnae? tympanic membrnae could be bulging
What holds the tympanic membrane in place? limbus [in eye you have a limbus as well which is wehre yo uhave the sclera attached]
What is the name of the tense part of the tympanic membrane? pars tensa
What part of which bone is attached to thee tympanic membrane? handle [manubrium] of malleus
What is the loose part of the tympanic membrane called and what attaches to it? pars flacidda; 2 ligaments attach to it so that the handle can wiggle back and forth: anterior malleolar fold, and posterior malleolar fold
What is the umbo? the most depressed part of the tympanic membrane
What is mastoiditis? when mastoid air cells get infecteed, usually the structures of the middle ear of sterile
What 2 parts of the middle ear branch off? auditory tube goes to nasopharynx and equilizes pressure particularly when swallow; anturm goes up into the mastoid air cells
The fact that the tympanic membrane is much larger than the oval window causes what? amplification of sound by 22 times
What part of the incus acts as a pibot joint? short process
What part of the tympanic cavity is the incus suspended from? tegmumtympani
What is the smallest synovial joint in body? 3 lentiform process with stapes
What part of the stapes sits on the oval window? base or foot plate
What N creates a big bulge over the stapes in the middle ear? Facial N
What 2 N does the facial N give off in the middle ear? N of the stapedius M an dthe chorda tympani N
What N crosses over the handle of the malleus? chorda tympani N
If you cut the facial N before the geniculate ganglion what kind of issues do you have? lacrimal and salivary switch
If you cut the facial N before the stapedius m then what happens? along with facial N you also have sensitivity to sound
What N sends a tympanic branch into the tympanic caivty from the juglar foramen? glossopharyngeal
If someone is blowing their nose a lot what will the tympanic membrane look like? sucked in and bulge over promontory
If the facial N is damaged below the N of the stapedius but above the chorda tympani what will be affected? anterior 2/3 of taste and facial MM; below the chorda tympani would only be facial MM
The proximal and distal parts of the auditory tube are made of what? proximal- bone, distal- cartilage
What is the ductus endolymphaticus? puts fluid into the inner ear cavity
What part of what bone is the cochlea nd vestibular apparatus imbedded in? petrous portion of the temporal bone
What is the bony labyrinth? a hollow structure that contains the membranous labyrinth
Where does the oval window open? to the vestibulewhich is an area between the cochlea and semicircular canals
What is the helicotrema? point where the scala vestibuli empties to scala tympani
Where is the round window? end of the scala tympani What is the 2nd tympanic membrnae?
What is endolymph similar to and where is it found? intracellular fluid; found in cochlear duct
What is perilyph similar to and where is it found? CSF, found in scala vbestibuli and scala tympani
Where are the ganglion cells in the cochlea? along the cochlear duct
Describe how the vibrations are transverred from the stapes to the round window? stapes shakes oval window, vibrations go to scala vestibuli, scala vestibuli winds into the cochlea communicates with scala tympani which winds back out and goes to round window which dissipates the energy.
What is 3 parts of the interior of the cochlea bounce together and translate the different frequencies of the vibrations? When the vibrations are winding in the cochlea the basilar membrane and tectorial membrane and hair cells vibrate and bounche around causing the transdution of sound frequencies.
What is the active labyrinth? semicircular canals
What is the static labyrinith? utricle and saccule
What is barotrauma? physical damage to hearing due to differencecs in pressure
What is conduction deafness? decreased hearing due to decreased motion of the tympanic membrane or ossicles; this can be fixed with a hearing aid
What is sensorineural deafness? hearing loss due to loss of neural components or cochlear nerve, this can NOT be fixed with hearin gaid
What is presbycusis? symmetrical loss of higher pitch hearing associated with age
What does the saccule contain? hair cells
What are otoliths? give momentum to the gelatinous membrane that contains either bones or crystals; this provides a sense of acceleration / deceleration
What sense or felling can the static labyrinth provide? sense of acceleration and deceleration
What kind of special cells are in the ampulla? hair cells
What do the hair cells in the active labyrinth sense? rotational movement of head; neurologicaly relatede to control of eye movements
Hearing your heart beat in your ear at night can be caused by what? high blood pressure because internal carotid and jugular V are below the tympanic caivty
What is ramsey Hunt syndrome? Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a painful rash around the ear that occurs when the varicella zoster virus infects a nerve in the head. Symptoms: Painful rash on the eardrum, ear canal, earlobe, tongue, roof of the mouth (palate)
If a woman has ear pain or jaw pain from going up stairs what is going on? angina or heart attachk
What is glosopharyngeal neurallgia? Glossopharyngeal neuralgia consists of recurring attacks of severe pain in the back of the throat, the area near the tonsils, the back of the tongue, and part of the ear.
What is a chalaxion cyst? an obstucted tarsal gland. It is located between the tarsal plate and the conjunctiva
What is a hordeolum? inflammation of a sebaceous gland associated with the follicle of an eyelash. Also known as a stye
What does the glottis do? controlls the airway and produces sound ruing phonation [vocal cords producing sound through vibration]
What is the skeleto of the larynx's job? maintain a patent airway
What is a patent airway? open and unblocked
What is a laryngospasm? spasmodic closure of the glottis which is life threatening; can be caused by irritating chemicals, sever allergic reactions, and sometimes as a side effect of medications
If someone is persistently hoarse, which nerve might be damaged? recurrent laryngeal N
What is the organ of phonation? larynx
What is the organ of articulation? tongue
What is the transition from neck to mouth? hyoid bone
What branchial arches does the hyoid bone come from? 2nd and 3rd
What type of cartilage is the epiglottis made of? elastic cartilage
What are all the cartilages of the larynx made of except the epiglottis? hyaline cartilage
Where does the thyrohyoid M attach on the thyroid cartilage? oblique line
What does the inferior horn of the thyroid catilage articulate with? cricoid cartilage, so the thyroid can rock back and forth when pulled by different muscles
What kind of effect does the laryngeal prominence have on the voice? larger prominence causes a deeper voice; hormone dependent
What does the vocal fold go between? arytenoid cartilage and posterior part of the angle of the thyroid cartilage
What attaches to the vocal process of the arytenoid catilage? vocal ligament
What rotates on top of the cricoid cartilage? arytenoid cartilage
What type of joint is the joint between the cricoid and arytenoid and the joint between the inferior horn of thyroid and cricoid? both are synovial joints
What is Somatotopic arrangement? it is the maintenance of spatial organization within the central nervous system. sensory information on the hand remains next to sensory information on the arm) throughout the spinal cord and brain
Which NN are special sensory function only found in? cranial nerves
What is visceral epithelia referring to and what type of tissue does it develop from ? taste, endoderm
What is mucosal epithelia referring to and what type of tissue does it develop from ? smell, ectoderm
What are the special visceral afferent? taste and smell, they require an organ to process these senses; like a special cell; you could also think of it as they are associated with the stomach organs or stomach viscera
What are the special somatic afferent? hearing and vision, because they are sensing specific things about the body not the environment
Efferent - loss to pharynx (except stylophar) & palate (except tensor VP), epiglottis taste, smooth M, cardiac M, & glands. Afferent - loss to larynx, pharynx, etc; Uvula deviates to opp side of lesion. Lose cough, sneeze & efferent limb of gag reflex
What arises from the olfactory epithelium? What do they go through? And where do they go too? small bipolar olfactory nerves; go through the cribriform plate; go to the olfactory bulbs and synapse with mitral cells
What cranial N develops embryologically as an extension of the brain? olfactory bulb and tract; easily damaged from blunt trauma to head
What can be caused by lesions in the olfactory pathway? anosmia, hyposmia, dysosmia, parosmia
What is anosmia? loss of smell
What is hyposmia? reduction in smell
What is dysosmia? distortion of smell
What is parosmia? sensation of smell without appropriate stimulus
What are the neurons of the retina? ganglion cells
What connects the photoreceptor cells to the ganglion cells? bipolar cells
What are photoreceptor cells? rods and cones
Where do the axons of the ganglion cells converge? optic disk which then forms the optic N [another extension of the brain]
Where do optic tracts go? lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus
When the optic tracts synapse in the lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus where do the neurons go next? And where do they go? now form optic radiations that goes to the visual cortex; some fibers travel to pretectal nucleus and superior colliculus of the midbrain where they participate I nlight reflexes
What happens if you have a retinal lesion? blind spot in the affected eye
Optic nerve lesion causes? blindness in the affected eye
What is the direct light reflex? constriction of pupil in eye with light shined in it
What is the consensual light reflex? pupillary constriction of opposite eye that light is shined in
Accommodation/convergence reflex? thickening of lens, eyes move to midline, pupils constrict; important in near vision and reading
What else is lost besides going blind when an optic nerve lesion occurs? loss of direct and consensual papillary reflexes
What is another name for the trigeminal ganglion? semilunar ganglion
What is the dental N? trigeminal N ; carries sensation from all teeth and gingival
What is the action of the masseter M? powerful closure of the jaw, assists in jaw protrusion
What is the action of the temporalis M? powerful closure of the jaw, jaw retraction
What is the action of the medial Pterygoid M? synergistic with masseter, jaw protrusion, grinding motion
What is the action of the lateral pterygoidM? jaw protrusion, lateral chewing motions, assists in closing the jaw
What is the action of the Tensor veli palatine M? tense the soft palate, opens the pharngotympanic tube
What is the action of the Mylohyoid M? elevates hyoid, mouth floor, and tongue during swallowing and speaking
What is the action of the Anterior belly of digastrics M? depresses mandible, steadies hyoid during swallowing and speaking
What is the action of the Tensor Tympani M? reduces ossilation of the stapes in the oval window
What is hyperacusis? hypersensitivity of sounds
What is strabismus? lesion to abducens nerve causing medial deviation of the eye on the side of the lesion. Causes diplopia [double vision]
What is diplopia? double vision
What are some symptoms of a lesion to the facial N? loss of taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue, drying of cornea due to lack of tears, decreased salivation, facial paralysis, hyperacusis, loss of corneal reflex [inability to blink]
The vestibular nerve carries what type of information from what parts of the ear to where? info about position and movement of the head; transmits info from semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle of the vestibular apparatus. It then goes to the vestibular ganglion in the internal acoustic meatus.
The cochlear nerve carries info about what? Where are it’s cell bodies located and where does it go? transmits hearing info; cell bodies are located in spiral ganglia within the cochlea which then goes through the internal acoustic meatus and to the brainstem
A lesion to the vestibular n causes what? vertigo and nausea
A lesion to the cochlear N causes what? hearing loss, deafness and tinnitus [hearing sounds without there actually being sounds like ringing in ear]
What is tinnitus? Tinnitus is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound. Like ringing in ear.
What are the symptoms of Meniere’s disease and what N or NN are involved? vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, deafness. Both vestibular and cochlear N are involved so vestibulocochlear N [CN 8]
Where are the sensory component cell bodies of the glossopharyngeal nerve located? superior or inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion
A lesion of the glossopharyngeal N causes what? gag reflex, carotid reflex, palatal reflex, taste and general sensation loss from posterior 1/3 of tongue, glossopharyngeal neuralgia where the pain is specifically in the palatine tonsil, Eustachian tube and middle ear
What is paroxysmal? short sudden attack
Where are the cell bodies of the sensory fibers of the vagus nerve located? jugular [superior] or nodose [inferior] ganglion of the vagus nerve
What 2 MM in the pharynx and palate does the vagus N not innervate? And what innervates these 2 MM? stylopharyngeus [glossopharyngeal M] and tensor veli palatine M [mandibular N]
What are the symptoms of a lesion to the vagus n? loss of gag and palatal reflex, hoarsness [damage to recurrent laryngeal], dysphonia [speaking], dysphagia [swallowing], dyspnea [breathing]
If you damaged both sides of the vagus N what would occur? bilateral vagal lesion leads to paralysis of larynx, asphyxia and death
What is dysphonia? trouble speaking
What is dysphagia? difficulty swallowing
What is dyspnea? difficulty with breathing
What 2 structures form the spinal accessory n? the union of a cranial root and a spinal root
What does the cranial root of the accessory n come from? nucleus ambiguous
What does the spinal root of the accessory n come from? spinal cord between dorsal and ventral roots o f cervical spinal nerves
Why does an accessory n lesion not affect the pharynx and larynx very much? these areas are innervated by cN 9 and 10
What N travels with the hypoglossal n for a short distance? cervical nerve 1
What is the only glossus muscle that the hypoglossal n does not innervate and what innervates it? palatoglossus muscle; vagus nerve
What kind of joint is the cricothryoid articulation? pivot; located on posterior side
What nerve and artery go through the thyrohyoid membrane? internal branch of superior laryneal n and superior laryngeal a
What is a cricothyrotomy? is an incision made through the skin and cricothyroid membrane to establish a patent airway
Where is the cuneiform cartilage located? in the aryepiglottic fold
Which fold in the larynx is the fatty fold? false vocal fold
What is the small space between the true and false vocal folds called? ventricle
What is the area between the 2 vocal folds called? rima glottidis
When intibating what do you put the tube through? rima glottidis
What does the conus elasticus do? closes space btw vocal ligament & top of cricoid. This is described by some as an extension of the cricothyroid ligament. Odon thinks of it as the cricovocal ligament. Conus elasticus is the structure that completely closes the airway eg. Holding breath
Where do you get a pill stuck? piriform recess; can still feel it because you have damaged an extremely fragile mucous membrane in that region
Where do frogs generate sound? an outpouching of the ventricle
How do you define extrinsic MM of the larynx? anything that attaches to the hyoid
How do you define intrinsic MM of the larynx? anything tha tgoes from one cartilage to the enxt and acts directly on thte larynx
What are the suprahyoid MM? stylohyoid, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid
What are the infrahyoid MM? thyrohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, sternohyoid
What are the lonitudinal M of the pharyngeal wall? salpingopharyngeus M, palatopharyngeus M, stylopharyngeus M
What are the intinsic MM of the larynx? act between laryngeal elements: cricothyroid, posterior cricoarytenoid, lateral cricoarytenoid, transverse arythenoid, oblique arytenoid, aryepiglottic, thyroarytenoid
What is the only instrinsic m of the larynx not innervated by the reccurent laryngeal n? cricothryoid, external branch of superior laryngeal n
What is the only M that can abduct the vocal folds? posterior cricoarytenoid M
Which muscle changes the pitch of the voice? vocalis M
What does the oblique arytenoid M turn into? aryepiglottic M within the aryepiglottic fold
Of the 2 nerves of the larynx, which is the afferent and which is the efferent? afferent- internal larygngeal N, efferent- recurrent laryngeal N
What does the enveloping layer of deep cervical fasica surround? surrounds sternoclediomastoid and trapezius, accessory n runs between
What are the 3 fascia that make up the caroitd sheath? pretracheal fascia, prevertebral fascia, deep cervical fasica
What is another name for the pretrahceal fascia? buccopharyngeal fasica
What does the prevertebral fascia surround? vertebra, back MM, prevertebral MM
What ods the pretracheal fascia surround? esophagus, trachea, thryoid
what is tmj ankylosis? TMJ Ankylosis, difficulty in mouth opening
what is the faucial isthmus? the communication of the oral cavity with the oral pharynx between the palatoglossal arches
What does the lingual frenulum do? connect the tongue with the floor of the mouth
Where does the submandibular duct terminate? sublingual caruncle or papilla [on either side of the lingual frenulum]
what are the hard palate, maxilla, mandible and hyoid bone embryologically derived from? neural crest cells
What is the primary palate? intermaxillary segment that carries the 4 incisors
What is the secondary palate? palatine shelves
What is enamel produced from? ameleoblasts that originate in oral ectoderm
What does the pulp cavity and dentin arise from? mesenchyme of neural crest cell origin
What is facial hemitrophy? Facial hemiatrophy: atrophy, usually progressive, affecting the tissues of one side of the face.
What is facial hypertrophy? when one side of the face enlarges over the other
What goes through the greater palatine foramen? greater palatine a and n
What goes through the lesser palatine foramen? lesser palatine a and n
What goes through the incisive fossa? nasopalatine n and sphenopalatine a
What is the mandibular symphysis? where the 2 original mandible bones fuse
What is the intermaxillary suture? where the original 2 maxillary bones fuse
What protects the mandibular foramen? bony lingual
What are the mental spines? 4 spines on the posterior part of the mandible. 2 superior [origin of genioglossus] and 2 inferior [origin of geniohyoid]
Aside form a place for muscle attachments what is the function of the hyoid bone? maintenance of an open airway
What provides innervations to the maxillary buccal and labial gingiva? infraorbital and superior alveolar branches of maxillary N
What provides innervations to the mandibular buccal and labial gingiva? buccal and mental branches of mandibular N
What provides innervations to the maxillary gingival and palate? greater palatine and nasopalatine branches of maxillary N
What provides innervations to the mandibualr gingiva on the lingual side ? lingual n
What provides general sensory innervations [like pain, temp, and pressure] to the anterior 2/3 of tongue? lingual branch of trigeminal
What provides general sensory innervations [like pain, temp, and pressure] to the posterior 1/3 of tongue? lingual branch of glossopharyngeal N [CN9]
Where is the opening to the sublingual gland? there are actually numerous openings all along the sublingual fold
What loops around the lingual nerve? submandibular duct
What innervates the filiform papillae? lingual N; also they are sensitive to touch
What innervates the vallate papillae? glossopharyngeal N; arranged in V shape anterior to the terminal sulcus
What do the superior and inferior longitudinal MM do? make tongue short an dthick
What do the transverse and vertical Mm do? 3 make the tongue long and narrow
What innervates the special sensory taste of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? facial N via the chorda tympani [except vallate papillae]; facial N travels with lingual n to reach the tongue
What innervates the special sensory taste of the posterior 1/3 of tongue? glossopharyngeal N
What innervates the special sensory taste of the root of the tongue near the epiglottis? vagus N via the internal laryngeal nerve
What is the vascular supply to the tongue and name the branches? lingual A. dorsal lingual to the root, deep lingual to body, sublingual to sublingual gland area
What is the venous drainage for the tongue? lingual V
How can you bypass the digestive tract and get medication to the circulatory system quickly? sublingual medication into the lingual VV which drain into the IJV
Describe the lymph drainage of the tongue. Root- superior deep cervical lymph node, medial body- inferior deep cervical LN, lateral body- submandibular LN, apex and frenulum- submental LN
What does testing the taste reception of ant and post tongue test for? functioning of CN 7 and 9
What does touch on the ant and post tongue test for? functioning of CN 5 and 9
What does protrusion of the tongue test? functioning of CN 12
What does the gag reflex test? functioning CN 9 and 10
O- sternohyoid M O- Medial end of clavicle and manubrium of sternum
I- sternohyoid M I- Lower margin of body of hyoid bone
A- sternohyoid M A- Depresses hyoid bone if ithas been elevated, as in swallowing
N- sternohyoid M N- Cervical spinal nerves C1-C3 through the ansa cercicalis (slender nerve root in cervical plexus)
O- - Omohyoid M O- Superior belly: arises from tendon of inferior belly near sternoclediomastoid; Inferior belly: superior border of scapula near scapula notch and suprascapula ligaments
I- Omohyoid M I- Superior belly: inserts on lower border of hyoid bone; Inferior belly: ends as a tendon (bound to clavicle by central tendon)
A- Omohyoid M A- Depresses and retracts hyoid bone; retracts larynx
N- Omohyoid M N- Ansa Cervicalis (C2-C3)
O- - Sternothyroid M O- Posterior surface of manubrium of sternum
I- Sternothyroid M I- Oblique line on lamina of thyroid cartilage
A- Sternothyroid M A- Depresses larynx
N- Sternothyroid M N- Ansa Cervicaclis (C1-C3)
O- Thyrohyoid M O- Oblique line of thyroid cartilage
I- Thyrohyoid M I-Body and greater horn of hyoid
A- Thyrohyoid M A-Depresses hyoid and elevates larynx
N- Thyrohyoid M N- C1 via hypoglossal nerve
O- - geniohyoid M O- Inferior mental spine on inner surface of mandible
I- geniohyoid M I-Anterior surface of body of hyoid bone
A- geniohyoid M A- Pulls hyoid bone superiorly and anteriorly shortening the floor of the mouth, it draws the tongue forward
N- geniohyoid M N- 1st cervical nerve (C1) through the hypoglossal nerve
O- - Mylohyoid M O- Mylohyoid line of mandible
I- Mylohyoid M I- Upper border and median raphe of hyoid bone
A- Mylohyoid M A- Elevates hyoid bone and raises floor of mouth and tongue
N- Mylohyoid M N- Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (V)
O- - stylohyoid M O- Styloid process of temporal bone
I- stylohyoid M I- Body of hyoid bone at junction of greater cornu
A- stylohyoid M A- Elevates and retracts the hyoid elongating the floor of the mouth and lifts the tongue during swallowing
N- stylohyoid M N- Facial Nerve (VII)
O- Anterior belly of digastfic M O- Anterior belly- inner side of inferior margin of mandible near mandibular symphysis
I- Anterior belly of digastfic M I- body of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone by a fibrous loop
A- Anterior belly of digastfic M A- together, the digastric muscles elevate the hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech
N- Anterior belly of digastfic M N- Anterior belly- mandibular Branco of trigeminal nerve (V);
O- Posterior belly of digastfic M O- Posterior: between the mastoid and styloid processes of temporal bone;
I- Posterior belly of digastfic M I- Both bellies insert on the body of the greater cornu of they hyoid bone by a fibrous loop
A- Posterior belly of digastfic M A- Actino together, the digastric muscles elevate the hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech; the posterior belly helps open the mouth and depresses the mandible
N- Posterior belly of digastfic M N- Posterior: cervical Branco of facial nerve (VII)
O- Posterior cricoarytenoid M o- posterior surface of lamina of cricoids cartilage
I- Posterior cricoarytenoid M I-Muscular process of arytenoids cartilage
A- Posterior cricoarytenoid M A-Abducts; opens rima glottidis by rotating arytenoids cartilage laterally
N- Posterior cricoarytenoid M N- Recurrent laryngeal N
O- Transverse Arytenoid M O-posterior surface of arytenoids cartilage
I- Transverse Arytenoid M I- opposite arytenoids cartilage
A- Transverse Arytenoid M A-adducts;closes rima glottidis
N- Transverse Arytenoid M N-Recurrent laryngeal N
O- Oblique Arytenoid M O-muscular process of arytenoids cartilage
I- Oblique Arytenoid M I-apex of oppostite arytenoids
A- Oblique Arytenoid M A-adducts;closes rima glottidis
N- Oblique Arytenoid M N-recurrent laryngeal n
O- Lateral cricoarytenoid M O- arch of cricoids cartilage
I- Lateral cricoarytenoid M I-muscular process of arytenoids cartilage
A- Lateral cricoarytenoid M A-adducts; closes rima glottidis by rotating arytenoids caratilage medially
N- Lateral cricoarytenoid M N-recurrent laryngeal n
O- Thyroarytenoid M O-inner surface of thyroid lamina
I- Thyroarytenoid M I-anterolateral surface of arytenoids cartilage
A- Thyroarytenoid M A-adducts;relaxes
N- Thyroarytenoid M N-recurrent laryngeal n
O- Vocalis M O-angle between two lamina of thyroid cartilage
I- Vocalis M I-vocal process of arytenoids cartilage
A- Vocalis M A-adducts;tenses [anterior part] ; relaxes [posterior part]; controls pitch
N- Vocalis M N- recurrent laryngeal n
O- Genioglossus M O- Internal surface of mandible near symphysis
I- Genioglossus M I- Coger portion of tongue and body of hyoid bone
A- Genioglossus M A-Protracts tongue; can also depress tongue and work with other extrinsic muscles to retract tongue
N- Genioglossus M N-Hypoglossal craneal nerve (XII)
O- Hyoglossus M O- Body and greater horn of hyoid boe
I- Hyoglossus M I-Lower lateral portion of tongue
A- Hyoglossus M A-depresses tongue and draws its side downward
N- Hyoglossus M N-Hypoglossal cranial nere (XII)
O- Styloglossus M O- Styloid process of temporal bone
I- Styloglossus M I- Lower lateral portion of tongue
A- Styloglossus M A- Retracts and elevates tongue
N- Styloglossus M N- Hypoglossal cranial nerve (XII)
O- Vertical Intrinsic M of the tongue O-
I- Vertical Intrinsic M of the tongue I-
A- Vertical Intrinsic M of the tongue A-Flattens and broadens tongue
N- Vertical Intrinsic M of the tongue N-Hypoglossal N
O- Transverse Intrinsic M of the tongue O-
I- Transverse Intrinsic M of the tongue I-
A- Transverse Intrinsic M of the tongue A- Narrows and elongates tongue
N- Transverse Intrinsic M of the tongue N- Hypoglossal N
O- superior longitudinal Intrinsic M of the tongue O-
I- superior longitudinal Intrinsic M of the tongue I-
A- superior longitudinal Intrinsic M of the tongue A- curls, shortens tongue
N- superior longitudinal Intrinsic M of the tongue N- Hypoglossal N
O- inferior Intrinsic M of the tongue longitudinal O-
I- inferior Intrinsic M of the tongue longitudinal I-
A- inferior Intrinsic M of the tongue longitudinal A- curls, shortens tongue
N- inferior Intrinsic M of the tongue longitudinal N- Hypoglossal N
O- temporalis M O- Temporal fossa and temporal fascia
I- temporalis M I- Coronoid process of mandible via a atendon that passes deep to the zygomatic arch
A- temporalis M A- Elevates and retracts mandible, assists in side to side movement of mandible
N- temporalis M N- Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (V)
O- Palatoglossus O- Styloid process of temporal bone
I- Palatoglossus I- coger lateral portion of tongue
A- Palatoglossus A- Retracts and elevavtes tongue
N- Palatoglossus N- Hypoglossal craneal N (XII)
O- Palatopharyngeus O- Hard palate and palatine aponeruosis
I- Palatopharyngeus I- Lateral wall of pharynx
A- Palatopharyngeus A- Tenses soft palate and pulls walls of pharynx superiorly, anteriorly, and medially during swallowing
N- palatopharyngeus N- Cranial part of spinoaccessory (XI) nerve and pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (X)
O- Superior oblique M O- Tendinous ring attached to the bony orbit around the optic foramen
I- Superior oblique M I- Through a fibrocartilaginous ring, the trochlea, and attaches on the superior surface of the eyeball between the superior and lateral rectus muscles
A- Superior oblique M A- Rotates the eyeball moving it downward and laterally
N- Superior oblique M N- Trochlear N (IV)
O- Levator palpebrae superioris M O-lesser wing of sphenoid above and anterior to optic canal
I- Levator palpebrae superioris M I-tarsal plate and skin of upper eyelid
A- Levator palpebrae superioris M A-elevates upper eyelid
N- Levator palpebrae superioris M N-oculomotor N and sympathetic
O- Superior rectus M O- common tendinous ring
I- Superior rectus M I- Superior surface of anterior sclera
A- Superior rectus M A- Elevates eyeball
N- Superior rectus M N-Oculomotor N (III)
O- Lateral rectus M O- common tendinous ring
I- Lateral rectus M I- Lateral surface of the anterior sclera
A- Lateral rectus M A- Laterally rotates eyeball
N- Lateral rectus M N- Abducens N (VI)
O- Medial rectus M O- common tendinous ring
I- Medial rectus M I- Medial surface of the anterior sclera
A- Medial rectus M A- Medially rotates eyeball
N- Medial rectus M N- Oculomotor N (III)
O- Inferior rectus M O- common tendinous ring
I- Inferior rectus M I- Inferior suface of anterior sclera
A- Inferior rectus M A- Depresses eyeball
N- Inferior rectus M N- Oculomotor N (III
O- Inferior oblique M O- Maxillary bone at the medial inferior corner of the orbit
I- Inferior oblique M I- Lateral surface of the eyeball between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles
A- Inferior oblique M A- Rotates the eyeball moving it upward and laterally
N- Inferior oblique M N- Oculomotor N (III)
Created by: TJACKS11