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APHY 102 EX 2

Urinary\Immune\Cardiovascular Heart&Blood

QuestionAnswer
Largest artery of the body Aorta
Supplies the kidneys Renal artery
Supplies the duodenum and the stomach Common hepatic artery
Supplies the distal areas of the large intestine. Inferior mesenteric artery
Supplies pelvic structures. Internal iliac artery
Artery that does not anastomose. Renal artery
Gives rise to the right common carotid and right subclavian artery. Brachiocephalic trunk
Supplies the lower limbs. External iliac artery
Common site to take the pulse. Radial artery
Major supply to the cerebral hemispheres. Internal carotid artery
Large unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta. Celiac trunk
Abdominal aorta splits to form two. Common iliac artery
Receives blood from all areas superior to the diaphragm, except the heart wall. Superior vena cava
Carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. Pulmonary trunk
Drains the scalp. External jugular vein
Runs through the armpit area. Axillary artery
Drains the upper extremities, deep vein. Subclavian vein
Artery usually palpated to take the blood pressure. Brachial artery
Major artery of the thigh. Femoral artery
Supplies the small intestine. Superior mesenteric artery
Carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. Pulmonary vein
Longest vein in the body, superficial. Great saphenous vein
Site where resistance to blood flow is greatest. Arterioles
Site where exchanges of food and gases are made. Capillaries
Site where blood pressure is lowest. Large veins
Site where the velocity of blood flow is fastest. Large arteries
Site where the velocity of blood flow is slowest. Capillaries
Site where the blood volume is greatest. Large veins
Site where the blood pressure is greatest. Large arteries
Site that is the major determinant of peripheral resistance. Arterioles
The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation. True
Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart. False
Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane. False
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is an arterial anastomosis. True
The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima False
The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries. False
Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg. True
A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries. True
Thoroughfare channels connect a metarteriole to a venule. False
Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction. False
The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues. True
The most common form of shock is hypovolemic shock. True
Every minute, about 1.5 ml of fluid leaks out of the capillaries. True
The pancreas is an example of an organ with arteries that do not anastomose. False
An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart. True
Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses. True
An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance. True
The first major branch of the femoral artery is the dorsalis pedis artery. False
The azygos vein originates in the abdomen. True
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure? A)cardiac output B)peripheral resistance C)emotional state D)blood volume C)emotional state
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure? A)ADH B)atrial natriuretic peptide C)angeiotensin II D)nitric acid D)nitric acid
Which statement best describes arteries? A)All carry oxygenated blood to the heart. B)All carry blood away from the heart. C)All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. D)Only large arteries are lined with endothelium. B)All carry blood away from the heart
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium? A)tunica intima B)tunica media C)tunica externa D)basement membrane A)tunica intima
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________. capillaries
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________. hepatic portal circulation
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________. muscular arteries
Aldosterone will ________. promote an increase in blood pressure
The pulse pressure is ________. systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
Which of the following signs of hypovolemic shock is a relatively late sign? rapidly falling blood pressure
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise? Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
Which of the following is true about veins? Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
Venous anastomoses ________. form more freely than arterial anastomoses
Peripheral resistance ________. increases as blood viscosity increases
Brain blood flow autoregulation ________. is abolished when abnormally high CO2 levels persist
Blood flow to the skin ________. increases when environmental temperature rises
Select the correct statement about the movement of materials at the capillary level. A)Oxygen diffuses up its concentration gradient. B)Chemical waste products follow the same general path as oxygen. C)Carbon dioxide moves from its production sit C) Carbon dioxide moves from its production site into the interstitial fluid.
Which of the following is a type of circulatory shock? A)hypovolemic caused by increased blood volume B)cardiogenic which results from any defect in blood vessels C)vascular due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone D)cir vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation? tunica media
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ________. significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is ________. shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after severe vomiting or diarrhea
In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, hydrostatic pressure ________. is the same as capillary blood pressure
The hepatic portal vein ________. carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
Which of the following has anastomosing vessels? retina,heart,kidney,spleen heart
Which of the following do not influence arterial pulse rate? A)activity B)postural changes C)emotions D)the vessel selected to palpate D)the vessel selected to palpate
Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation? A)superior vena cava, right atrium, and left ventricle B)right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium C)left ventricle, aorta, and inferior vena cava D)right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium
Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer. tunica intima
The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________. arterioles
Fenestrated capillaries ________. are not found in the brain
Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________. sinusoids
Factors that aid venous return include all except ________. A)activity of skeletal muscles B)pressure changes in the thorax C)venous valves D)urinary output urinary output
Which of the following blood pressure readings would be indicative of hypertension? A)120/80 in a 30-year-old man B)140/90 in a 70-year-old woman C)170/96 in a 50-year-old man D)110/60 in a 20-year-old woman 170/96 in a 50-year-old man
Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure ___________ increase
Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________. the dural sinus reflex
The velocity of blood flow is ________. slowest in the capillaries since the total cross-sectional area is the greatest
Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to _____________ cardiac output
A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________. right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
Cerebral blood flow is regulated by ________. intrinsic autoregulatory mechanisms
A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in ________. increased work of the left ventricle increased incidence of coronary artery disease increased damage to blood vessel endothelium increased size of the heart muscle
The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, do not primarily operate via ________. altering blood volume
Secondary hypertension can be caused by ________. arteriosclerosis
Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation? lungs
The first major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ branch. brachiocephalic trunk
The most common form of shock is ________. hypovolemic
Released by the endothelium, a family of peptides called ________ are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known. endothelins
A ________ capillary has many oval holes in it. fenestrated
Arterial ________ provide alternate pathways for blood to get to an organ. anastomoses
The ________ in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch detect increases in blood pressure. baroreceptors
The ________ artery is a blood vessel on the arm used as a pressure point. brachial
________ shock is due to abnormal expansion of blood vessels and a rapid drop in blood pressure. Vascular
The third major branch of the aortic arch is the ________ artery. left subclavian
The ________ supply the brain with blood. internal carotid arteries
________ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Pulse
Blood flow equals the difference in blood pressure divided by ________. peripheral resistance
The lowest venous blood pressure is found in the ________. venae cavae
As a cuff is deflated on the arm, sounds of ________ can be heard. Korotkoff
Which type of blood vessels contain valves and what is their function? Veins contain valves to prevent blood from flowing backward. This is necessary because the venous vessels are a low-pressure system and the blood must sometimes flow against gravity, particularly in the limbs.
Describe the forces that determine fluid movements across capillary walls. (1) Capillary hydrostatic pressure (equal to capillary blood pressure) tends to force fluid out of capillaries into the interstitial spaces. (2) Osmotic pressure, created by large nondiffusible particles in the blood, tends to draw water into the capillar
Define vasoconstriction and vasodilation. What is the mechanism of regulation? Vasoconstriction is a reduction in the lumen diameter of a blood vessel due to smooth muscle contraction. Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle relaxation. Both are regulated by vasomotor nerve fibers of the sympathetic division of
Consider the diameter of one 4-mm blood vessel and two 2-mm blood vessels. Would the two 2-mm vessels carry more, less, or the same amount of fluid, given that pressure is a constant? Why? The two 2-mm vessels would deliver considerably less fluid for two reasons: (1) the resistance in the smaller vessels is much greater and (2) the volume of the 4-mm vessel is greater than that of two 2-mm vessels. Draw a 4-inch circle; then put two 2-inch
Based on what we have learned about the regulation of blood flow to various organs, do you think it is wiser to rest or exercise after a heavy meal? Explain your answer. At rest, the abdominal organs receive approximately 24% of the total blood flow. With exercise, blood flow is shifted away from abdominal organs to skeletal muscles. It would therefore be wiser to rest after a heavy meal to allow optimum function of the o
The average thickness of an arteriole is six times that of the average venule, why? The arteriole wall still contains some smooth muscle and some elastic fibers which tend to be quite thick at times. This is needed due to the higher pressure in arterioles. The venule, on the other hand, is more like a giant capillary with only occasiona
Created by: boxer8903