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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Terms

Three essential concepts the complementarity of structure and function, the hierarchy of structural organization, and homeostasis.
Anatomy studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
Physiology concerns the function of the body, in other words, how all body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
Gross, or macroscopic, anatomy the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart lungs, and kidneys.
Regional anatomy all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time.
Systemic anatomy the anatomy of the body is studied system by system.
Surface anatomy the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
Microscopic anatomy concerns structures to small to be seen with the naked eye
cytology considers the cells of the body
histology the study of tissues
Developmental anatomy traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
Embryology a subdivision of developmental anatomy concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
pathological anatomy studies structural changes caused by disease
radiographic anatomy studies internal structures as visualized by x-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
molecular biology investigation of the structures of biological chemicals
renal physiology concerns kidney function and urine production
neurophysiology explains the workings of the nervous system
cardiovascular physiology examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
Principle of complementarity of structure and function what a structure can do depends on its specific form
Chemical level the simplest level of the structural hierarchy.
cellular level the smallest units of living things
Tissue Level groups of similar cells that have a common function.
organ level discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function for the body.
Organ system organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose.
Organismal level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life.
maintaining boundaries the internal environment (inside) remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it (outside).
Movement includes the activities promoted by the muscular system.
Contractility the muscles cell's ability to move by shorting.
Responsiveness Irritability the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them.
Digestion the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
Metabolism "a state of change" - a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
Excretion is the process of removing excreta, or wastes, from the body.
Reproduction Can occur at the cellular or organismal level. The original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells that may then be used for body growth or repair.
Growth an increase in size of a body part or the organism.
homeostasis indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium, or a balance. literal translation is "unchanging"
variable factor or event
receptor a sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes called stimuli
control center determines the set point(level or rang eat which a variable is to be maintained analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course action
effector provides the means for the control centers response
superior (cranial) toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
inferior(caudal) away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
anterior(ventral) toward or at the front of the body; in front of
posterior(dorsal) toward or at the back of the body; behind
medial toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
lateral away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal closer toward the origin of the body part or to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
superficial (external) toward or at the body surface
deep (internal) away from the body surface; more internal
epi upon, above
lumbus loin
chondro cartilage
ruq right upper quadrent
luq left upper quadrent
rlq right lower quadrent
llq left low quadrent
Created by: Sierra1995



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