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Inductive Reasoning A method of acquiring knowledge formalized by Francis Bacon where people arrive at knowledge, based on observed facts, of the general nature of things. This caused others to think beyond what is already known/assumed and therefore discover more.
Empiricism The philosophy of founding of knowledge by observation and experience.
Cognito ergo sum “I think, therefore I exist” concluded by Rene Descartes using systematic doubt holding that he could not deny his own existence.
Montaigne A French Essayist whose philosophical question “What do I know” with the implied answer “Nothing” led to a broad-minded outlook through which people weighed and contrasted the thinking of others with their own.
New Atlantis By Bacon published in 1627 portraying a scientific utopia whose inhabitants enjoyed a perfect society thought their knowledge and command of nature. This perpetuated his notion that the discovery of true knowledge can be put to work and lead to progress.
Advancement of Learning Published in 1623 as part of Bacon’s “Great Renewal” where he insists that true knowledge is useful knowledge.
Vesalius A Flemish anatomist whose book The structure of the Human Body (1543) modernized the study of anatomy, disregarding previous assertions made by Galen.
William Harvey Published On the Movement of the Heart and Blood (1628) which set forth the doctrine of continual blood circulation through arteries and veins.
Leeuwenhoek A Dutch physiologist who discovered blood corpuscles, spermatozoa, and bacteria.
Tycho Brahe The greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of heavenly bodies after Copernicus and showed that the orbits of planets in perfect circles did not fit observable facts.
Heliocentric Theory Contemplated in Copernicus’ On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs (1543) where he held the sun to be at the center of the universe instead of the earth and showed it to be mathematically simpler.
Pierre Bayle A literary scholar who saw no basis on many popular beliefs. His book Historical and Critical Dictionary (1697) filled with miscellaneous lore conveyed the same idea as Montaigne that it is foolish to hold too strongly to one’s own views.
Edmund Halley A friend of Newton and the first man to predict the return of a comet observed in 1302, 1456, 1531, and 1607 to come back in 1682 which caused people to talk about the significance of comets.
Richard Simon A French priest who applied textual criticism to the bible in his work Critical History of the Old testament and concluded that fallibility of the Old testaments as well as the contradictions within it which caused people to question the bible.
Jean Mabillon A French Benedictine monk who in his book On Diplomatics (1681) established the science of paleography which contributed to the work of learned enthusiasts who set to authenticate/dismiss old manuscripts.
James Usher Archbishop and Anglican prelate of Ireland who in his study of the bible announced 4004b.c. to be the creation of the world and his chronological system was printed on margins of the Authorized Version of the English Bible.
Paleograph A science established by Jean Mabillon in 1681 which deals with deciphering, reading, dating, and authentication of manuscripts
Numismatics The study of ancient coins which were far older tan manuscripts
Biblical Criticism The application of textual criticism on the bible through which people started to question the evidence of the bible and the possibility of events within it
Gregorian Calendar A celendar issued by Pope Gregory the XIII in the 16th century used by Catholic countries and eventually England, Russia, China, India, and the Arabic World. Aided communication and planning
The Prince By Niccolo Machiavelli where he drew from historical evidence to describe how rulers behaved in order to be successful in their ambitions and suggests how others should proceed
Two Treatises of Government Written by John Locke in 1680 in which he sided with Parliament against the king in the struggle of politics. Believed people in the "state of nature" were able to get along, had natural rights and human liberty which challenged repressive institutions
Leviathan A book published by Hobbes 1651 where he supported absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state and influenced theorists to contemplate natural arguments
Samuel Pufendorf Published Law of Nature and of Nations in 1672 which held that sovereign states should work for the common good and abide to principles of international law
Hugo Grotius Published Law of War and Peace in 1628 devoted to the idea of "law of nations" to create order and included content such as agreements between governments, admiralty and maritime law, and terms of treaties
Kepler A German mystic, astrologer, and scientific genius who discovered the orbit of planets as ellipses and described formulas for movement of planets. Showed that Brahe and Copernicus' ideas can coincide
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Orbs A book by Copernicus published in 1543 which held the sun to be the center of the solar system and showed to be mathematically simpler than the Ptolemaic system which was over time becoming increasingly intricate
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Published by Newton in 1687 where he brought Kepler and Galileo's ideas together, showed that motion could be described by mathematical formulas, and described the force of universal gravitation
Reasonableness of Christianity By John Locke where he argues that Christianity is a reasonable form of religion and softened the friction between religion and natural knowledge
Essay concerning the Human Understanding A book by John Locke published in 1690 where he insists on experience and observance as the source of truth and how the environment/society contributed to how well people turned out. This turned attention to the idea of social molding and progress.
Created by: rhiyanna