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Histology Part 2

Three basic types of muscle skeletal, smooth, cardiac
The meat or flesh of the body attached to the skeleton Skeletal muscle
Long, cylindrical, and multinucleated cells with striations present skeletal muscle
Location: Attached to bones, tongue, and facial muscles skeletal muscle
Function: body movement, maintain posture, breathing, speaking, controlling waste elimination, and protection skeletal muscle
Function: propel substances along passageway, blood flow, air flow, creates goose bumps, controls pupil size smooth muscle
Location: Many viscera, Iris, uterus, blood vessels, respiratory tubes, attached to hair follicles smooth muscle
Involuntary Muscles Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle
Voluntary muscles skeletal muscles
Spindle-shaped with central nuclei that are arranged closely to form sheets. No striations present Smooth muscle
Cells branch and are uninucleated that fit together at junctions called intercalated discs with faint striations present cardiac muscle
Location: Heart cardiac muscle
Function: to pump blood cardiac muscle
Two types of cells that make up nervous tissue neurons and neuroglia
Excitable cells because they exhibit signals called action potentials neurons
Supportive and protective; cannot conduct nerve impulses neuroglia
Location: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves nervous tissue
Function: transmit electrical signals from sensory effectors to acceptors nervous tissue
Main components of integumentary system skin and accessory organs
Hair, nails, sweat glands, salivary glands accessory organs
Provides protective covering for deeper tissues, aid in regulating body temperature, retard water loss, house sensory receptors, synthesize various chemicals, and excrete small quantities of wastes integumentary system
Function: serves as a cushion, protection, and insulation integumentary system
2 distinct regions of the skin epidermis and dermis
Superficial and consists of stratified squamous epithelium epidermis
Deep and consist of connective tissue dermis
Not part of the skin, deep to dermis, and consist of adipose tissue hypodermis
Location: areolar and dense irregular hypodermis
Function: cushion and insulation hypodermis
Avascular and contain 4 or 5 layers epidermis
5 layers of epidermis stratum basale, startum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
Single row that are mitotic stratum basale
Several layers thick – mitotic but not at the rate of basale stratum spinosum
Thin layer in upper border where cells begin to die stratum granulosum
Clear, thin translucent- only found in thick skin stratum lucidum
20 – 30 layers deep, horny layer, dead skin layer stratum corneum
Most abundant cell in the epidermis and they produce keratin keratinocytes
Function: gives epidermis durability and protective capability keratinocytes
Spidery black cell, secrete black/brown pigment called melanin melanocytes
Function: protects nuclei of cell from UV rays melanocytes
dense irregular CT; consisting of two principal regions: papillary dermis and reticular dermis dermis
Superficial and composed of areolar CT papillary dermis
Deep and composed of dense irregular CT reticular dermis
Where you’ll find sensory receptors, veins, arteries, sweat and oil glands and pressure receptors dermis
Hornlike projectors nails
Inside root, outside shaft hair
Small band of smooth muscle cells which connect each cell to papillary layer arrector pili
Oil glands- found everywhere except palms and soles; empty into hair follicles; acts as lubricant sebacceuous glands
Two types of sweat glands eccrine/merocine and apocrine
Produce clear perspiration Eccrine/ merocrine
Found in armpit and genital area; secrete milky protein and fat rich substances apocrine
Created by: Lisa Hall



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