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AR Chap 7

Muscles and Joints

QuestionAnswer
buccinator cheek muscle, moves the cheeks
temporal muscle located above and near the ear
masseter used when biting and chewing, moves lower jaw
trapezius triangular-shaped muscle that extends across the back of the shoulder, covers the back of the neck; pulls shoulder blades together
latissimus dorsi lower back, extends to axilla (armpit)
pectoralis major fan-shaped muscle that crosses the upper part of the front of the chest
deltoid muscle covers the shoulder joint; one of the muscles used for intramuscular injections
gluteus maximus forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock; it is a large muscle that offers support when an individual is standing
gluteus medius smaller muscle located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle; one of the muscles used for intramuscular injections
hamstring muscles located in the posterior part of the thigh; responsible for flexing the leg on the thigh
gastrocnemius main muscle of the calf (meaning - calf bladder)
tibialis anterior muscle is positioned on the front of the leg (shin splints)
arthralgia pain in the joints
atrophy wasting away
contracture an abnormal (usually permanent) bending of a joint into a fixed position; usually caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers
insertion point of attachment more mobile
involuntary muscle muscles that act without conscious control
origin point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that is less movable
pelvic girdle weakness weakness of the muscles of the pelvic girdle; muscular dystrophy
skeletal muscle muscles that attach to the bones of the skeleton; skeletal muscles act voluntarily; aka striated muscle
smooth muscle muscles found in the walls of hollow organs and tubes; aka visceral muscles; act involuntarily
striated muscle muscles that have a striped appearance; skeletal and cardiac muscles are examples
tendon attaches muscle to bone
torso aka trunk or midsection
visceral muscle muscles of the internal organs; aka smooth muscle
voluntary muscle muscles that operate under conscious control; skeletal muscles are examples
muscular dystrophy group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles; no evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue
rotator cuff tear tear in the muscles that form a "cuff" over the upper end of the arm; most common of shoulder injuries
strain injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon, resulting from overstretching, overextension, or misuse; muscle pull
muscle biopsy extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, for the purpose of examining it under a microscope
electromyography process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current
flexion bending motion, which decreases the the angel between two bones
extension straightening motion, which increases the angle between two bones
abduction movement of bone away from the midline
adduction movement of a bone toward the midline
rotation turning of a bone on its own axis
supination turning palm upwards
pronation turning palm downward
dorsiflexion narrows the angle between top of foot and leg (flex)
plantar flexion increases the angle (ballerina)
circumduction circular motion
Created by: maxphia32