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pt immobility

effects and complications

Musculoskeletal system effects... decreases muscle strength and mass: shortening & tightening of connective tissue: calcium leaves the bones.
Musculoskeletal system potential complications.. foot drop, muscle atrophy, contractures, osteoporosis
Cardiovascular system effects \ decreases cardiac output: pooling of blood in extremities: increases cardiac workout
Cardiovasculary system potential complications orthostatic hypotension, blood clots in extremities and traveling to lungs, brain, and heart
Respiratory system effects decreases respiratory muscle strength and lung expansion: impaired o2 and co2 exchange: pooling of respiratory secretions
Respiratory system potential complications atelectasis, hypoxemia, hypostatic pneumonia
Gastrointestinal system effects decreases peristalsis and appetite: increases intestinal gas
Gastrointestinal system potential complications constipation, flatulence, distenton
Urinary system effects pooling of urine in renal pelvis, incomplete emptying of bladder, increase calcium in the blood to be filtered by kidneys
Urinary system potential complications uti, renal calculi
Integumentary System effects decreases o2 and nutrients to tissues: skin and capillaries compressed between bed and bony prominences
Integumentary system potential complications pressure ulcers
neurological system effects decreases oxygenated blood circulating to nerves trapped between bed and bones: decreases in normal cues and activities: decreases balance when initially out of bed
neurological system potential complications compression neuropathy, impaired level of consciousness, confusion
psychological effects decrease in normal social interaction and independent activity
psychological potential complications depression, anxiety, impaired sleep
Active range of motion excercises performed by the pt w/out physical nursing assistance
Passive range of motion excersises are done with nurse performing excersises with support to the extremity NURSE DOES IT FOR THE PT
Mattress overlays are at least how many inches thick.. 3-4'' to reduce pressure Eggcrate mattress
Specialized mattresses contain special foam"memory foam" or chambers containing air that can be controlled by a dial Synergy air elite mattress
Air fluidized bed no true mattress. contains small round beads in an enclosed area air pumped thru to make beads mimic liquid.... closest thing to a water bed for a pt
low air-loss bed lined with pocketed air mattress. air pockets can be inflated or deflated to pt comforty on any area of mattress. constant rotation flow of air
combination air-fluidized and low air-loss bed lower part is air-fluidized and upper part is a low air-loss type
continuous lateral-rotation bed allows entire bed to turn from side to side mattress is low air-loss and bed can be controlled at different times
Supine position laying on back with arms at sides
Supine is for physical exam, resting, and anesthesia
dorsal recumbent on back with legs apart and knees bent and feet flat
dorsal recumbent purposes physical exam of abdomen, labor, perineal care
trendelenburg on back foot higher than head of bed
trendelenburg abdominal surgeries
trendelenburg reverse head is higher than feet. laying on back
trendelenburg reverse purposes angiography procedures, abdominal surgeries
lateral on the left or right side, supported behind back and betweent lower legs..good body alignment
lateral purposes pt comfort, lung and cardiac function.. relieve pressure on bony prominences of coccyx an sacrum
sims on the left side right leg up to chest, left arm along patients back...
sims purposes suppository insertion, enema, surgery, rectal exam
fowlers sitting position with various elevations...regular 60 degrees
low-fowlers 30 degrees.. prevent aspiration during tube feeding
semi-fowlers 45 degreees watch tv and converse with visitors, relieve tension on abdominal incision, assist with breathing
high-fowlers 90 degrees. eat and drink without choking, breathing problems
orthopenic 90 degree head elevation or feet on floor sitting on side of bed. leaning slightly forward with arms on overbed table. Assist in severe respiratory distress.
prone on belly with head turned to side
prone purpose improve oxygenation and relieve pressure to back,coccyx, and hips
lithotomy on back with knees above hips and legs in stirrups
lithotomy purposes vaginal exams, neonate delivery, gynecology surgery and procedures
Pillows purpose relieve pressure on lumbar spine, maintain proper alignment, and reduce roatationof spine.
pillows placement under knees, between knees and ankles, at the back in lateral position.
Arm board prevent flexion of joint, when iv catheter is near joint
arm board placement wrist or elbow
blanket roll purpose support back or soles of feet
blanket roll placemetn at back or soles of feet
hand roll purpose position of function of hand and fingers
hand roll placement in palm of hand
foot board purpose maintain position and function of feet
foot board placement against soles
stirrups purpose positioning for vaginal surgery, pelvic exam, or infant delivery
stirrups placement feet in stirrups
trochanter roll purpose prevent external rotation of legs
trochanter roll placement lateral side of hip and thigh 3-4'' under hip
neck ROM chin to chest is flexion of neck chin to neutral is extension of neck
turn head from side to side is rotating the neck
ear to shoulder is lateral flexion
shoulder ROM arm to ear is flexion
arm down flat is extension of the shoulder
pull arm straight out is abducting the shoulder
move arm back to side of body is adducting the shoulder
put hand on opposite shoulder is internally rotating the shoulder
return pt arm to correct side of body slightly bent is externally rotating the shoulder
elbow ROM bend elbow then pull hand to shoulder is flexing the elbow
return pt hand to side of body is extending the elbow
palm up is supinating the arm
palm down is pronating the arm
push palm down to forearm is flexing the wrist
turn wrist in and outward to rotate the wrist
push hand backward to hyperextend the wrist
separate the fingers from one another is abducting the fingers
bring fingers close to each other is adducting the fingers
making a fist is flexing the fingers
straightenin the fingers is extending the fingers
touching each fingertip to the thumb is opposition of the thumb
move thumb and finger in circulation is circumduncting the fingers and thumb
bending the leg at the knee then pushing upward toward pts head is flexing the hip and knee
straightening the leg is extending the hip and knee
pull leg away from body is abducting the hip
moving leg back to midline and crossing over the other leg to adduct the hip
roll leg inward is internally rotating the hip
rolling leg outward is externally rotating the hip
toes pointing toward the head is dorsi flexion of the foot
toes pointing toward the foot of the bed is plantar flexion of the foot
turn sole of foot inward is inverting the foot
turn sole of foor outward is everting the foot
move foot in circular motion is circumducting the ankle
separate toes from each other is abducting the toes
putting toes close to one another is adducting the toes
crinkle the toes to flex the toes
straighten toes to extend the toes
Created by: gurien13