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The Brain

Parts of

TermDefinitionFunctionLocation
Auditory Areas areas responsible for information Heard Hearing and Interpretation Temporal Lobe - latterally and superiorly
Olfactory Areas areas responsible for information smelled Smell and Interpretation Temporal Lobe - medially (cannot be seen from the outside)
Postcentral Gyrus primary Sensory area perception of Pain, Touch, Pressure, and Temperature Parietal Lobe
Association Areas Interprets shapes, images, textures, and physical realtionships of body parts enables the use of words to express thoughts Parietal Lobe
Primary Visual Area RECEPTION of visual input from eyes, forming color, shapes, and images control eye movement Occipital Lobe
Hemispheric Specialization traits of thought alotted to a specific hemisphere of the brain Right cerrebrum = Artistic skills and Spatial relationships Left cerrebrum = Numerical and Language skills Occipital Lobe
Precentral Gyrus primary Motor area motor nerve tracts originate here Frontal Lobe
Speech Area area related to speech regulates patterns of Breathing and Vocalization Frontal Lobe
Prefrontal association areas Social behaviors, Problem solving, Time relationships, Foresight, and Judgement Frontal Lobe
Basal Nuclei The basal nuclei is a group of cell bodies found deep in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres Adjusts and Subdues motor activity Gray matter bilateral to the Thalamus
Limbic System includes the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and several other nearby areas regulates Behavioral aspects of major emotions: pain, guilt, pleasure, sexual gratification, and Long Term memory around Lateral ventricles
Thalamus relay point for Sensory info that will be passed to the Primary sensory area of the Cerebral Cortex allows crude Appreciation of Most sensations - Directs and Coordinates MOTOR activities Forebrain - deep gray matter Medial to Basal Nuclei
Hypothalamus between the thalamus and the midbrain 1. regulates Behavior associated with FEAR 2. controls most of the AUTONOMIC nervous system 3. regulates certain Survival Functions (thermoregulation, appetite, sexual desire) 4. controls secretion of Pituitary gland Forebrain - gray matter forming the floor of the 3rd ventricle
1st and 2nd (Lateral) Ventricles two curved openings (shaped like a horseshoe) located within cerebrum, drain into Inter ventricular Foramen to 3rd ventricle - provide a pathway for cerebrospinal fluid deep within the top section of the brain
3rd Ventricle a narrow, four-sided, irregularly shaped opening that provides a pathway for cerebrospinal fluid within cerebrum, drains into Cerebral Aqueduct between Thalamic deep within the top section of the brain
4th Ventricle an irregular ventricle between the third ventricle and the central canal of the spinal cord drains into Median and Lateral Apertures to the SUBARACHINOID SPACE Hindbrain, between Medulla and Cerebellum
Cerebral Peduncles One of two large bands of white matter (containing descending axons of upper motor neurons) contains MOTOR projection tracts TO Pons and SENSORY tracts FROM Spinal Cord to Thalamus Midbrain
Reticular Formations core of gray matter extending into Forebrain and Hindbrain determines level of Conciousness and arousal of the Cortex Midbrain
Corpora Quadrigemina The inferior and superior colliculi collectively Superior Colliculi (2): VISUAL Reflexes (involuntary eye/head movement) Inferior Colliculi (2): AUDITORY reflexes (involutary head movement) Midbrain
Cerebellum thin cortex composed of gray matter 1. Muscular Memory: habitual actions (walking, driving) 2. Normal locomotion 3. adjusts postural muscles for balance Hindbrain
Pons "Bridge" that links Cerebral Hemispheres and connects the Cerebellum with the Cerebrum (above) and Medulla (below) works with the Medulla to control BREATHING Hindbrain
Medulla (Oblongata) lover Brain Stem, continuous with the Spinal Cord Crossing nerve tracts carrying voluntary MOTOR Output from the Cerebral Cortex - Vital centers: respiration, heart rate, vasomotor control; Non-Vital centers: coughing, vomiting, swallowing Hindbrain - pyramid formations bilateral to cleavage line
Created by: kristel387