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Military History

OCS Phase II Military History Exam

What is Military History? The record of all activities of all armed forces in war AND peace
4 Types of Military History Operational - Institutional - Biographical - Social & Technological
Operational Military History Battles, Campaigns, Tactics and Planning
Institutional Military History Preparing for war, how to train for war
Biographical Military History Military lives, great and not so great
Social & Technological Context for operations
7 uses of military history Learn from the past - Understand military concepts - Study lives of soldiers of the past - Understand doctrinal evolution - Broaden knowledge of military subjects - Understand leadership issues - Learn about strategy and tactics
7 Constants of war Terrain - Logistics - Communications - Technology - Surprise - Leadership - Troop readiness
Terrain Shapes the battlefield, dictates routes of advance, dictates deffensive positions
Logistics Roads, rail, airfields, ports..how all of these afect the ability to sustain forces in combat
Communications Ability to issue orders, stay in contact with other friendly forces...SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
Technology Modernity of weapons compared to the opposing force and the ability to understand and use the weapons
Surprise Unexpected developments which occur despite best efforts to reduce uncertainty
Leadership Experience, ability, military genius of friendly and opposing forces
Troop Readiness Levels of training, cohesiveness of units, equipment, etc.
Military history provides Understanding and insight, NOT PROOF.
Types of activities included in Mil. History: Battles, campaigns, strategy, tactics, doctrine, training, leaders, technology, etc.
Who is Blumenson? He developed the 'constants of war'. Wrote 'Relevence of Kassarine'
3 most important principles in studying military history? Begin with what interests you; study continuously; develop a study plan
How can subordinates be taught the value of military history? Help them determine what is of interest to them, encourage them to study continuously and help them develop a study plan
What is Battle Analysis? A method used by the Army to provide a SYSTEMATIC APPROACH to the study of battles, campaigns, etc.
4 steps to Battle Analysis Define the subject; Set the stage; Describe the action; Draw lessons and insights
Define the subject What, Where, When and Who and Determine the sources
What, Where, When and Who Pick a subject appropriate to the level of operations of interest. Select a topic related to the types of lessons learned.
Determine the Sources Quantity and type of sources Quality of sources
Set the Stage (4 steps) Strategic Factors; Operational Setting; Tactical Situation; Compare forces
Strategic Factors Type of conflict Objectives of the antagonists Military Systems Pervious experience of forces
Operational Setting Context Objectives Additional factors (alliances, tactics, doctrine and personalities)
Tactical Situation Alternatives Area of Operations Weather Terrain
Compare Forces Size and composition Technology Intelligence C3 (command, control, communiciation)
Draw Lessons and Insights Cause and Effect Military Lessons
How can leaders describe battle analysis methodology to subordinates? Who won, Who lost? What were the constants that affected the outcome? Why did events turn out the way they did?
What are two elements of drawing lessons and insights from a battle analysis? Establish cause and effect Establish military lessons and determine their relevance to contemporary military professionalism.
Types of research sources used to support a battle analysis? Books (memoirs, official histories) articles primary sources (memos, letters, interviews, AARs) oral histories
Created by: tawney_r