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The Brain Gives rise to all motor fibers; receives all sensory information, including all interneurons
The Medulla Oblongata lowest part of the brainstem - continuous with the spinal cord - and sits in anterior part of posterior cranial fossa
"Pyramids" of the Medulla Oblongata On the ventral surface- these are corticospinal tracts from the cerebral cortex and they decussate (cross) in the lower medulla
Cranial nerves that Arise from the Medulla Last four (CN 9-12) arise from the medulla
The Pons Sits in the anterior part of the posterior cranial fossa
Cranial nerves that arise from the Pons CN 5-8 exit here, also part of the CN 9 Nuclei
Functions of the Pons Contains respiratory centers that work with medulla to regulate respiratory movements
Functions of the Medulla Oblongata Cardiac and respiratory rhythmiticity centers for autonomic control of heart rate/ contractile strength and voluntary control of respiration
Midbrain (aka mesencephalon) smallest region of the brainstem, located just above the pons
Substantia Nigra located between peduncles and tegentum, involved in maintaining muscle tone and coordinating movements
Cranial Nerves of the Midbrain CN 3&4 and also part of CN 5
reticular formation specific system within the entire brain stem, receives a lot of sensory information, particularly from the head and face
The Cerebellum located behind the brain stem, known as the little brain
3 parts of the Cerebellum lateral cerebellar hemispheres, Vermis, Flocculonodular lobe
Lateral cerebellar Hemispheres moostly work with frontal lobe of cerebrum
Functions of the Cerebellum Helps to guide the contraction of voluntary mucles through its impact on lower CNS motor neurons and i conjunction with cerebral cortex motor outflow
Damage to the Cerebellum Results in: Disturbance of voluntary movement, balance, equilibrium and posture
The Diencephalon above the brain stem
Regions of the Diencephalon Thalamus, Subthalamus, Epithalamus, Hypothalamus
Cranial Nerves of the Diencephalon CN 2, only cranial nerves of this region
The Thalamus Largest part of the diencephalon, all sensory information, influences mood and actions associated with strong emotions
The Subthalamus Small area inferior to thalamus, contains several motor and sensory tracts, involved in controlling motor function
The Epithalamus Small area superior and posterior to thalamus, contains pineal gland and habenula
Pineal Gland has some influence on the sleep-wake cycle and biorhythms
Habenula Influenced by our sense of smell and involved with viscreral and emotional response to odors
The Hypothalamus Houses the pituitary gland, Controls heart rate, urine release, movement of food through intestine, regulates temperature, large emotional control, sexual development
The Cerebrum Highest brain area, Has 2 hemispheres that are separated by a longitudinal fissure.
Gyri Folds in the Cerebrum
Sulci Grooves in the Cerebrum
Longitudinal Fissure The cleft between the 2 hemispheres in the Cerebrum
Basal Nuclei Within the White matter, plays a part in motor control
Lobes of the Cerebrum Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe
The Dura-Mater The 2 layered Outermost Layer, very sensitive to pain
The Outer Dural Layer Provides a tubular dural sheath for the cranial nerves as they exit through the foramina (small openings) in the skull
The Internal Dural Layer The internal meninge is attached more firmly to the floor of the cranial fossae than the skullcap.
Tentorial Compartment The tentorium cerebelli exists here, a horizontal fold that extends between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum
Subtentorial Compartment The falx cerebelli exists here to seperate the hemispheres of the cerebellum but does not extend deeply
Supratentorial Compartment The falx cerebri exists, deeply dividing the cerebral hemispheres in the longitudinal fissure
Dural Septa extensions medially of dura that limit excessive movement of the brain within the cranium. They divide the cranial cavity into 3 communicating compartments
The Arachnoid Mater Delicate membrane that does not invest into all the fissures of the brain, but simply passes over the sulci
The Subarachnoid space The space below the Arachnoid Mater, where CSF is found
The Pia Mater Very thin inner layer that follows the brain surface exactly. The subarachnoid space above the pia is highly vascularized
Cerebrospinal Fluid fluid that is formed in the ventricular system f the brain. Provides a protective cushion around the CNS and provide some nutrients to CNS tissues
CSF FLow Formation within the Choroids Plexuses in each ventricle, through the interventricular foramen through 3rd and 4th ventricle. Goes through the subarachnoid space to the arachnoid granulations.
Venous Sinuses venous channels between the internal and external dura seen primarily along attachments of dural septa
Cranial Nerves 12 pairs, all arise from the brain and brainstem, Dorsal and Ventral Roots are not seen with Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerve 1 Olfactory Nerve; Sensory only, smell
Cranial Nerve 2 Optic Nerve; sensory only, vision
Cranial Nerve 3 Oculomotor Nerve; Motor Only, movement of the eye and parasympathetic to cause pupil constriction and accommodation
Cranial Nerve 4 Trochlear Nerve; Motor only, Movement of the eye (superior oblique muscle)
Cranial Nerve 5 Trigeminal Nerve; Motor and sensory, Sensory to the face, movement of the muscles of mastification
Cranial Nerve 6 Abducens Nerve; Motor Only, Movement of the eye (lateral Rectus Muscle)
Cranial Nerve 7 Facial Nerve; Motor and Sensory, taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, Movement of the muscles of facial expressium, some parasympathetic innervation of glands of the face
Cranial Nerve 8 Vestibulochochlear Nerve; Sensory, hearing and balance/equilibrium
Cranial Nerve 9 Glossopharyngeal Nerve; Motor and Sensory, taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, Pharyngeal muscle, parasympathetic innervation to the parotid glands
Cranial Nerve 10 Vagus Nerve; Motor and sensory, Senses from pharyn and larynx, all thoracic and abdominal viscera, Motor to soft palate, pharynx, laryngeal muscles
Cranial Nerve 11 Spinal Accessory; Motor Only; Movements of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
Cranial Nerve 12 Hypoglossal nerve; Motor only, movements of the tongue and throat muscles
Created by: 735568154



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