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Addtional AICP Facts

NAFTA Established a trade bloc (free trade agreement) implemented January 1, 1994, between Canada, the United States and Mexico
Trade Bloc A large free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. Typically trade pacts that define such a bloc specify formal adjudication bodies, e.g. NAFTA trade panels. This may include even a more democratic and particip
Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) Administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides grants to States, and States to eligible applicants, to implement long-term hazard mitigation measures after a major disaster.
Hazard Mitigation Grant Program Purpose Reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters and to enable mitigation measures to be implemented during the immediate recovery from a disaster.
e-Government Refers to government’s use of information and communication technology (ICT) to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
e-Government Includes internet, telephone, fax, PDA, SMS text messaging, MMS, and 3G, GPRS, WiFi, WiMAX, Bluetooth, etc..
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) A regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urbanization by designating the area inside the boundary for higher density urban development and the area outside the boundary for lower density rural development.
Green Belt A policy or land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas.
Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) A method for protecting land by transferring the "rights to develop" from one area and giving them to another.
Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) A method for protecting land, where a landowner voluntarily sells his development rights to a governmental agency or a land trust. The land owner is paid the difference between the current value of the land and the land’s potential development value.
Dillon's Rule Municipal governments only have the powers that are expressly granted to them by the state legislature, those that are necessarily implied from that grant of power, and those that are essential and indispensable to the municipality's existence
Vested Right Refers to when a developer/property owner has the right to develop a property - if they have a building permit, have relied on a public official, have made a substaintial investment etc.
Zoning Text Amendment Changes the rules regarding the use and development of every property in a specified zoning district
Zoning map amendment Change the zoning from residential to commercial on the property
Variance an administrative exception to land use regulations, generally in order to compensate for a deficiency in a real property which would prevent the property from complying with the zoning regulation.
Replat Any change in any street layout, other public improvement; lot line; amount of land reserved for public use or the common use of lot owners; & easements shown on the approved plat.
Kelo v. City of New London (2005) Affirmed the use of eminent domain for economic development
Lingle v. Chevron (2005) Jettisoned the "substantially advances" test for takings
Highest population density according to the 2000 New York has a population density of 10,292 people per kilometer. San Francisco has a density of 6,423 per kilometer.
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990
Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) Was adopted in 1972 to provides funding for coastal state programs designed to coordinate and regulate specific activities within defined coastal zones
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 Required both the private and public sectors to conform to certain environmental standards
Enterprise fund Established to manage the revenues and expenditures of a golf course
UGB Urban Growth Boundary is the most effective method for preventing development in specified geographic areas.
Christopher Stone's book Should Trees Have Standing The Sierra Club v. Morton, Secretary of the Interior (1972) case where the Sierra Club attempted to block the development of a ski resort in the Mineral King Valley in the Sequoia National Forest.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934) Allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare
City Beautiful Movement Includes civic design as a primary principle. Cities such as DC and Chicago had large parks, statues, and well-designed public meetings.
Fred French Investing Co. v. City of New York Found that Transfer of Development Rights is an inappropriate method to compensate the landowner for a taking by the City of New York.
Fiscal impact analysis Best used for a single development project to determine the revenues and expenses of the project.
New Urbanism Peter Calthorpe
Advocacy Planning in Cleveland Krumholz
Smart growth Promotes a variety of housing choices to allow people of all income and household types to have a place to live.
Section 8 This housing program provides funds to pay a portion of the rent for low-income households. The amount paid depends on the household income
Concentric Circle Theory Ernest Burgess (1925). Cities grow in a series of outward rings. Centered by a business district surrounded by a transition zone filled with low-income, high-crime area, then a working-class residential zone, then a middle-class residential zone, and fina
Neotraditional Development Calls for nodes of activity that provide Mixed Use, Multimodal Use and Contains Public Spaces
BART 1972, San Francisco
Plat Consists of a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land.
First shopping center Northgate Shopping Center, Seatle Washington, 1950
First modern, enclosed regional shopping mall Town and Country Shopping Center, 1954
Edge City Relatively new concentration of business, shopping and entertainment outside a traditional urban area, in what had recently been a residential suburb or semi-rural community, coined by Joel Garreau (1991)
Daylighting the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination.
Transect A term used by New Urbanist town planners to refer to the varieties of land use from an urban core to a rural boundary.
Workforce Housing Can refer to almost any housing, but always refers to "affordable housing - Defined by four principal factors: Affordability, Home ownership, Critical workforce & proximity to employment centers
What type of land accounts for about 2/3 of the privately held lands in the US? Agricultural
Empowerment Zone An economically depresed area designated for governmental subsidies and tax incentives.
43,560 Square feet in an acre.
Advocacy Planner Serves a variety of groups with different goals and interests.
Cincinnati First city to adopt a comprehemsive plan
Primary purpose of a fiscal impact analysis To assist city or county officials determine if a project will generate sufficient revenue to defray necessary public service costs
Important elements of a Historic Preservation Program Educational materials for historic building owners, design guidelines for historic building renovations and Tax incentives to encourage renovation
LULU Locally Undesirable Land Uses such as waste dump
Megalopolis An area with multiple-cities with a combined population of more than 10 million inhabitants
Which city was home to the first Council of Government? Chicago
Which of the following cities experienced the greatest population decrease between 1990 and 2000? Detroit
Metropolitan Planning Organizations Responsible for reviewing and coordinating programs affecting the region, certifying that a project to be federally funded will be consistent with regional plans or regional development goals and working w/ municipalities to coordinate roadway plans
The Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook Created by the APA to encourage states to revise their standard state zoning enabling acts?
President Clinton did which of the following in 2000? Created eight new national monuments.
President George H. Bush did which of the following in 1994? Signed NAFTA legislation
Vieux Carre Commission Was the first Historic Preservation Commission for the French Quarter in New Orleans, formed in the 1930's.
Lowering a thermostat by 1 degree Fahrenheit can reduce a heating bill by 3%
The amount of goods and serviced produced in the United States during a year Gross Domestic Product
How many federally recognized Native American tribes are there in the United States? 562
Non-IRA tribes Did not organize under the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act.
How much solid waste does the typical household create? Approximately 4.5 lbs. per person, per day.
Regression The analysis between two or more variables (x) and (y).
Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program Established 1977 to help distressed communities develop economically. facilitates public-private partnerships,attempts to encourage redevelopment in urban areas and encouraged intergovernmental cooperation for redevelopment projects
Hoover Dam is located on the border of which states? Arizona & Nevada
Which city had the first metropolitan plan in the United States? Chicago
When was the first National Conference on City Planning? 1909
How is the official unemployment rate calculated? Individuals unemployed divided by individuals 16 years of age and older in the labor force
Concentric Zone Theory The use of “invasion-succession” in describing dynamics, finds that growth happens by land uses expanding outward from one area to another.
Indian Reorganization Act 1934 - organization of Native Americans and allowed Native Americans to adopt a constitution and organize for their common welfare.
Limnology The study of (natural and manmade) lakes and ponds, rivers and streams, wetlands and groundwaters.
Census Tract A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county with a population of 1,500 to 8,000 persons.
The the first modern, “comprehensive” zoning enacted. First zoning ordinance to contain land use, density, AND building bulk controls. New York City, 1916
The Morrill Act (1862) Congress gave public land to each state to be sold for the establishment of “engineering, agriculture, and military sciences” colleges?
Zero Lot Line A form of development where the the building is sited on one or more lot lines with no yard, the intent of which is to allow a more flexible site design and to increase the amount of usable open space.
What year did the Panama Canal open? 1914
The first Council of Government was created in what year? 1954
Storm sewers are typically designed to handle up to what year flood? 25
Dezoning Reducing the intensity of zoning on a site.
cross-sectional survey A cross-sectional survey gathers information about a population at a single point in time. For example, planners might conduct a survey on how parents feel about the quality of recreation facilities as of today.
longitudinal survey Over a period of time. Some cities conduct a citizen survey of service satisfaction every couple of years. This data can be combined to compare the differences in satisfaction between 1995 and 2005.
stratified sample divides the population into groups, known as classes, from which a sample is drawn.
Inferential Statistics determine characteristics of a population based on observations made on a sample from that population. We infer things about the population based on what is observed in the sample.
Nominal data classified into mutually exclusive groups that lack intrinsic order. Race, social security number, and sex are examples of nominal data. Mode is the only measure of central tendency that can be used for nominal data.
Ordinal data values that are ranked so that inferences can be made regarding the magnitude. no fixed interval between values. letter grade on a test, for example. Mode and median are the only measures of central tendency that can be used for ordinal data.
Interval data data that has an ordered relationship with a magnitude. For temperature, 30 degrees is not twice as cold as 60 degrees. Mean is the best measure of interval data. Where the data is skewed median can be used.
Ratio data has an ordered relationship and equal intervals. Distance is an example of ratio data because 3.2 miles is twice as long as 1.6 miles. Any form of central tendency can be used for this type of data.
Qualitative Variables can be nominal or ordinal
Quantitative Variables can be interval or ratio
Continuous Variables can have an infinite number of values
Dichotomous Variables only have two possible values, such as unemployed or employed which are symbolized as 0 and 1
Hypothesis Test allows for a determination of possible outcomes and the interrelationship between variables.
Null Hypothesis, shown as H0 is a statement that there are no differences. For example, a Null Hypothesis could be that Traffic Calming has no impact on traffic speed.
An Alternate Hypothesis, designated as H1, proposes the relationship - Traffic Calming reduces traffic speed.
Variance average squared difference of scores from the mean score of a distribution.Variance is a descriptor of a probability distribution, how far the numbers lie from the mean.
Standard Deviation square root of the variance.
Coefficient of Variation measures the relative dispersion from the mean and is measured by taking the standard deviation and dividing by the mean.
Standard Error standard deviation of a sampling distribution. Standard errors indicate the degree of sampling fluctuation. The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error.
Confidence Interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how uncertain we are about the unknown parameter.
Chi Square non-parametric test statistic that provides a measure of the amount of difference between two frequency distributions. Chi Square is commonly used for probability distributions in inferential statistics.
z-score a measure of the distance, in standard deviation units, from the mean. This allows one to determine the likelihood, or probability that something would happen.
t-test allows the comparisons of the means of two groups to determine how likely the difference between the two means occurred by chance. needs the number of subjects in each group, difference btwn means of each group, and the standard deviation for each group.
ANOVA It studies the relationship between two variables, the first variable must be nominal and the second is interval.
Correlation Coefficient indicates the type and strength of the relationship between variables, ranging from -1 to 1. The closer to 1 the stronger the relationship between the variables. Squaring the correlation coefficient results in an r2
Regression test of the effect of independent variables on a dependent variable. A regression analysis explores the relationship between variables.
Sampling Error occurs when one has taken a sample from a larger population. The sample is not representative of the population as a whole, creating a sampling error.
nonsampling error cannot be explained by the representativeness of the sample. A nonsampling error can occur as a result of respondents misunderstanding a question or misreporting their answer and can also including missing values.
linear method Pop Estimate. Uses the rate of growth (or decline) in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population.
Exponential Method Pop Estimate. Uses the rate of growth (or decline) in population over a period of time to estimate the current or future population.
Symptomatic Method Pop Estimate. Uses available data to estimate the current population.
Modified Exponential Pop Estimate. Aassumes there is a cap to the change and that at some point the growth will slow or stop, resulting in a curved line.
Step-Down Ratio Method Pop Estimate. Relatively simple way to estimate or project population. This method uses the ratio of the population in a city and a county (or a larger geographical unit) at a known point in time, such as the decennial Census
Distributed Housing Unit Method Pop Estimate. Census data for the number of housing units, which is then multiplied by the occupancy rate and persons per household. Reliable for slow growth or stable communities, but is less reliable in communities that are changing more quickly.
Cohort Survival Method Pop Estimate. Uses the current population plus natural increase and net migration to calculate a future population. The population is calculated for men and women in specific age groups. Population pyramids. Most accurate population projection.
Economic base analysis looks at basic and non-basic economic activities. Basic activities are those that can be exported, while non-basic activities are those that are locally oriented. The exporting industries make up the economic base of a region. Uses location quotients.
Location Quotient ratio of an industry's share of local employment divided by its share of the nation. A location quotient of less than one indicates an importing economy. If the quotient is greater than one then the area is an exporting economy.
Shift-share analysis analyzes a local economy in comparison with a larger economy. This analysis looks at the differential shift, proportional shift, and economic growth. uses employment information by sector for two points in time.
Input-output analysis used to determine the employment effect that a particular project has on a local economy. links suppliers and purchasers to determine the economic output of a region. Input-output analysis is similar to economic base analysis.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) classifies business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data about the U.S. economy. developed by the Office of Management and Budget and in 1997, replaced the Standard Industrial Classification system.
Depreciation an accounting method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life.
Urbanized Area An urban nucleus of 50,000 or more people. In general, they must have a core with a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per square mile.
Urban Clusters At least 2,500 but less than 50,000 persons and a population density of 1,000 persons per square mile. New for the 2000 Census. In 2000, 11% of the U.S. population lived in 3,158 urban clusters.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Includes at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or an urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants), and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000.
Micropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Has a population of more than 10,000 people and less than 50,000 people. This includes a central county and adjacent counties that have a high degree of social and economic integration as measured by commuting.
Census Designated Places (CDP) The equivalent of an incorporated place for data purposes. This is for settled concentrations of population that are not incorporated.
Consolidated MSA (CMSA) Made up of several PMSA's. An example is the Dallas-Fort Worth Consolidated Metropolitan Area. Dallas and Fort Worth are each primary metropolitan statistical areas.
Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) Defined by the US Office and Budget to provide data description for areas where there is a core area with at least 10,000 people that when combined with other adjacent communities is socially and economically integrated.
Megalopolis 1961, Jean Gottman coined Megalopolis, referring to 300-mile-long urban area between Boston and Washington D.C. Generally dominated by low-density settlement and complex networks of economic specialization. megacity refers megalopolis > 10 million people.
Census Tract Typically has a population between 2,000 and 8,000 people. It is the smallest area where all information is released.
Census Block Smallest level at which the Census data is collected. There are typically 400 housing units per block.
Census Block Group Group of Census Blocks
Minor Civil Division (MCD) Unit only used in 29 states and usually corresponds to a municipality. Census County Divisions are used in the 21 states that do not have MCD's.
Tribal Designated Statistical Area Unit drawn by tribes that do not have a recognized land area. These are defined independently of the standard county based census
Threshold Population Use by many programs to determine eligibility. For example the Threshold Population to qualify to receive Community Development Block Grant Funds.
Fastest growing states Nevada (35%), Arizona (25%), and Utah (24%).
Top ten fastest growing metropolitan areas between 2000 and 2010 1. Palm Coast, FL 2. St. George, UT 3. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV 4. Raleigh-Cary, NC 5. Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 6. Provo-Orem, UT 7. Greeley, CO 8. Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX 9. Myrtle Beach-North Myrtle Beach-Conway, SC 10. Bend, OR
Percent of the US population living in urban areas. 81%
Only state between 2000 and 2010 that lost population. Michigan
Average household size average household size went down from 3.1 in 1970 to 2.59 in 2010.
Median age median age rose to 37.2 years of age.
American Community Survey (ACS) Began in 2005. Reaches 2.5% of the nation's population each year (1 in 40 addresses, approximately 3 million households). Rotates annually so that no household receives the survey more than once every five years.
TIGER Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing map, used for Census data. Includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) show digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it. DEMs can be used for storm water management, flood control, land use decisions, and other purposes.
Design Charrette PI. Intensive collaborative effort that brings together citizens, stakeholders, and staff to develop a detailed design plan for a specific area.
Delphi Method PI. Structured process to build consensus. Stakeholders do questionnaires. Feedback on responses is presented to group anonymously. Participants encouraged to revise answers based on replies. Answer range decreases and group converges in on solution.
Nominal Group Technique PI. Group process uses problem identification, solution generation, and decision making that can be used for groups of any size that want to come to a decision by vote. Participants then rank the solutions. The solution with the highest ranking wins.
Facilitation PI. Uses a person who with no direct stake in outcome of a meeting to help groups that disagree work together to solve complex problems and come to a consensus. The facilitator is typically a volunteer from the community who is respected by all groups.
Mediation PI. Method in which neutral third party facilitates discussion in structured multi-stage process to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement. The mediator assists parties in identifying priorities. Specifies measurable, achievable, realistic solutions.
Public Hearing PI. Typically associated with Planning Commission, City Council, etc. Allow formal citizen input at the end of a planning process. Typically mandated by law. Hearings are typically ineffective at building public participation and consensus.
Visual Preference Survey Assists citizens in evaluating physical images of natural/built environments. View and evaluate variety of pictures depicting building styles, streetscapes, etc.
Created by: rpalladino