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Western Civ1 Midterm

Western Civilization I Midterm study

two massive rock temples in Nubia, southern Egypt. Constructed under the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II Abu Simbel
Dynasty of Persian kings Achaemenid dynasty
highest point of the city of Athens, center of religion for the city and site of the Parthenon Acropolis
Greek marketplace agora
one god of the Zoroastrian faith Ahura Mazda
The first Germanic leader to take the city of Rome. Alaric I
Created one of the largest empires for Greece by the age of thirty. Alexander the Great
known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten. Ankhenaten/Amenhotep IV
also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in Book of Exodus as solely containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed Ark of the Covenant
Greek goddess of wisdom and patron goddess of the city of Athens Athena
Capital and largest city in Greece Athens
Family tree that was plagued by tragedies after Tantalus decided to cook his own son, Pelops, and feed him to the gods as a test of their omniscience. Atreus, House of
geographic region in Eastern Greece that contains the city state of Athens Attica
is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire. Augustus/Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus/Octavian
one of the seven hills of Rome, was only a small height. It consists actually of two peaks shared by a small gully, the first peak is close to the Tiber and the second, the minor Aventine is more south. Aventine Hill
was a bishop and a supporter of the Nicene faction of the church, in opposition to Arianism on one side and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea on the other. Basil of Caesarea
founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, about 40 miles (64 km) to the east of Rome, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. Honored as a patron saint. Benedict of Nursia
is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu . A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt, this was the second pyramid built by Sneferu. Bent Pyramid
a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age. Bronze Age
was an ancient Greek city, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas. It was later renamed Constantinople. Byzantium
is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome. Under reign of Tullus Hostilius, the entire population of Alba Longa was forcibly resettled here. Caelian Hill
also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 to 41. He was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His father is Germanicus. Caligula
between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. It was the citadel (equivalent of the ancient Greek acropolis) of the earliest Romans. Capitoline Hill
was an English aristocrat best known as the financial backer of the search for and the excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. His death lead to the rumor 'Mummy's Curse'. Carnarvon, Lord
was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist, noted as a primary discoverer of the tomb of Tutankhamun. Carter, Howard
was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the forces of Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of Greek city-states. The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians. Chaeronea, Battle of
is a monotheistic religion[1] based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. Christianity
is an independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as a part of another local government. city state
a unique collection of "forms of government, economic systems, and methods of scientific inquiry, as well as religions, languages, literature, and art. civilization
was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. Cleopatra
With the exception of dictatorship, all offices were collegial, that is, held by at least two men. Collegiality
was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. He and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all religions throughout the empire. Constantine the Great
Chief civil and military magistrate for Rome, there are always two elected Consul
as a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in A.D. 325. The Council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Council of Nicaea
order of architecture that employs entasis as does the Ionic order, is however much more detailed and decorative than either Doric or Ionic; most having flowers and leaves beneath a small scroll for their capitals Corinthian
was a Roman general and politician who commanded the left wing of Sulla's army at the Battle of the Colline Gate. Crassus
) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It was the centre of the Minoan civilization. Crete
The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, or group culture
is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. It began as a system of pictographs. Cuneiform Writing
was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule he created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Cyrus the Great
Architect responsible for the construction of the great labyrinth of the Minotaur on the island of Crete Daedalus
is the Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory" in the sense of a judgment that a person must not be remembered. Damnatio memoriae
Persian King who challenged the Greek city states at the Battle of Marathon Darius
a collection of 972 texts from the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical documents found between 1947 and 1956 on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. Dead Sea Scrolls
Funerary complex of Queen Hatshepsut Deir el-Bahri
was an association of Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Greco–Persian Wars Delian League
is generally defined as a form of government in which all people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy
the successors to Alexander the Great Diadochoi
was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. Diocletian
was one of the three orders or organizational systems of ancient Greek architecture. It stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) of a temple without a base. Doric
end of the harvest when the Nile River reaches its lowest level and the banks dry out and crack Dryness/Shemu
the Egyptian season when the land emerged from the flood. Emergence/Peret
a little bulge in the columns that make the columns look straight Entasis
is one of the celebrated Seven Hills of Rome. Its southern-most cusp is the Oppius Esquiline Hill
is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Euphrates River
Fertility cults
Agreement between Caesar Augustus and the Roman senate that allowed him to retain power outside of the usual traditions and patterns First Settlement
Gauis Julius Caesar
period of Greek history at the end of what can be termed the Dark Ages of Greece, so called for the geometric patterns that decorate pottery from this period Geometric period
were Roman Plebian nobiles who both served as tribunes in 2nd century BC. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians Gracchi brothers, Gaius and Tiberius
is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Great Pyramid at Giza
Zoroastrianism belief Good thoughts, good words, good deeds
was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician. He is generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was the leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War Hannibal
became the first king of the Babylonian Empire following the abdication of his father, Sin-Muballit, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms. Developed the first written list of laws. Hammurabi of Babylon
was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Hatshepsut
son of King Priam of Troy Hector
is an indirect form of imperial dominance in which the hegemon (leader state) rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means of power rather than direct military force. hegemony
narrow channel of water passing from the Aegean Sea past Constantinople now Istanbul to the sea of Marmara today better known as the Dardanelles Hellespont
was a Roman client king of Judea. He is known for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem and the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima Herod
a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. hieroglyphics
were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia. They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia. Hittites
Ancient Greek poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey Homer
Latin for "wise man" or "knowing man". They are the only living species in the Homo genus. Term for 'Humans'. Homo sapiens
was a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek city-states. They were primarily armed as spearmen and fought in a phalanx formation. hoplite
as in the Hyksos invasion of Egypt that end the Middle Kingdom period and rule Egypt for over 100 years Hyksos
power given to magistrates and leaders of Rome to empower them to act on behalf of all Romans imperium
Ancient Mesopotamian mother goddess, also goddess of the moon and fertility Inanna/Ishtar
Term used to describe the annual flooding of the Nile River in Egypt Inundation/Akhet
Eastern coast of Asia Minor/Turkey that contained many Greek colonies and Greek speaking city states such as Ephesus and Miletus; revolted against their Persian king with Athenian help Ionian coast
Greek order of architecture known for fluted columns, entasis present in the shaping of the columns, and scrolls for the capitals (ends). Ionic
a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the matron of nature and magic. Isis
a princess, identified in the Hebrew Book of Kings as the daughter of Ethbaal, King of Tyre (Phoenicia) and the wife of Ahab, king of north Israel. Jezebel
is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people. Judaism
began in 45 BC (709 AUC) as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria. Julian calendar
was the wife and one of three sisters of Zeus in the Olympian pantheon of Greek mythology and religion. Her chief function was as the goddess of women and marriage. Juno/Hera
is the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. Jupiter/Zeus
was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire. Justinian
also known as Labyrinth, it is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and probably the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. Knossos
precursor to the Latin cultures in the middle of the Italian peninsula that Roman culture will descend from Latial cultures
was a hero-king of Sparta. He is notable for his leadership at the Battle of Thermopylae against the Persians. "THIS IS SPARTA!" Leonidas
Minoan writing, not translated Linear A
Mycenaean Greek writing partially translated Linear B
is the northern-most section of Egypt. It refers to the fertile Nile Delta region, which stretches from the area between El-Aiyat and Zawyet Dahshur, south of modern-day Cairo, and the Mediterranean Sea. Lower Egypt
is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. According to the story her rape by the king's son and consequent suicide were the immediate cause of the revolution that overthrew the monarchy and established the Roman Republic. Lucretia
is one of eleven surviving plays written by Aristophanes. Originally performed in classical Athens in 411 BC, it is a comic account of one woman's extraordinary mission to end The Peloponnesian War. Lysistrata
took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens, aided by Plataea, and a Persian force commanded by Datis and Artaphernes. Marathon, Battle of
is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's ancient period. mastaba
The goddess of balance (personification of balance) and cosmic balance itself Ma'at
was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar. Marc Antony
were an ancient Iranian people who lived in Iran in an area known as Media and spoke a northwestern Iranian language referred to as the Median language. Medes
thought to have been originally built for Huni, it was completed and probably usurped by his successor, Sneferu, who also turned it from a step pyramid to a true pyramid by filling in the steps with limestone encasing. Meidum pyramid
First historical king of Ancient Egypt, unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt Menes/Narmer
Etruscan goddess/Roman Goddess similar to Greek goddess Athena Menrva/Minerva
is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran. Mesopotamia
is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC. The funerary cult of Osiris rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion. Middle Kingdom Egypt
was a Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and flourished from approximately the 27th century BC to the 15th century BC. Minoans
Mythological figure, King of Crete, father to the Minotaur Minos, King
as the Greeks imagined him, was a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, "part man and part bull". Minotaur
is the belief in the existence of a single (one) god. Monotheism
mountain in Greece, home of the Greek gods Mt. Olympus
volcano on the island of Santorini just north of the island of Crete Mt. Thera
Hittite king during the New Kingdom (reigned c. 1320–c. 1294 bc). Muwatallis
is a cultural period of Bronze Age Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese of southern Greece. Mycenaean
is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. It is thought by some to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer. Narmer palette
The goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt Nekhbet and Wadjit
headress worn by the pharaohs of Egypt when not wearing formal Double Crown (red and white) nemes
palaces of Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, and Zakros rebuilt after destruction by possibly natural causes ca. 1700 BCE Neopalatial Minoan Crete (1700-1400 BCE)
e is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. New Kingdom Egypt
is the creed or profession of faith that is most widely used in Christian liturgy. It explicitly affirms the divinity of Jesus, applying to him the term "God". Nicean Creed
is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. Nile River
nomen, praenomen, cognomen Roman naming convention
is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement Old Kingdom Egypt
is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, corporate, or military control. oligarchy
Egyptian god of the underworld, husband to Isis Osiris
is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. Palatine Hill
is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their virgin patron. Parthenon
upper class of Roman society patrician
was one of the most influential early Christian missionaries, with his writings forming a considerable portion of the New Testament. Previously named 'Saul' Paul of Tarsus
, was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Peloponnesian War
was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Pericles
is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. pharaoh
was a king (basileus) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. Philip (II) of Macedon
was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian and the forces of Julius Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia. Phillipi, Battle of
was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. They provided the first sea transportation and the first alphabet. Phoenicians
Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, and author of the Republic; teachings in regards to those adopted by Christianity: the human soul consisting of three basic energies that animate and give life Reason, Emotion, and Appetite Plato
lower classes of Roman society plebeian
Greek for city state polis
is the belief of multiple deities also usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own mythologies and rituals. Polytheism
was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and established himself in the ranks of Roman nobility by successful leadership in several campaigns. Pompey the Great
is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church (which is composed of the Latin Rite and the Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the see of Rome). pope/papa
First citizen, title taken by Caesar Augustus rather than be called king or emperor princeps
He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet (of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology). He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. Ptolemy
was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 B.C to 146 B.C. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place. Punic Wars
was an ancient city of the Levant, located on or near the headwaters or ford of the Orontes River. It held a battle between Egypt and Hittites. Quadesh/Kadesh
is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center. Quirinal Hill
Egyptian god of the Sun Ra/Re/Amun-Ra
was the third Egyptian pharaoh (reigned 1279 BC – 1213 BC) of the Nineteenth dynasty. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. Ramses the Great (II)
is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis. Named for the rusty reddish hue of its stones, it is also the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafra at Giza. Red pyramid
is the representation of a written word or spoken speech with the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. Romanization
Rome's twin founders in its traditional foundation myth, although the former is sometimes said to be the sole founder. Romulus and Remus
Rubicon River
Sargon of Akkad
First king of the unified tribes of Israel Saul
Ancient Egyptian rejuvenation festival for the pharaoh beginning in the 30th year of a reign and continuing every three years afterward for the rest of the king's life sed festival
Semitic peoples
: Ancient Mesopotamian sun god, god of Justice and patron of the cities Larsa and Sippar Shamash
Greek statesman who reformed the government of Athens and formulated the basic tenets of Athenian democracy Solon
Greek philosophers who taught by questioning everything sophists
Step pyramid of Djoser
Tarpeian rock
Tarquinius Superbus
site of Akhenaten's new capital city Tel al-Amarna
such as was employed by the emperor Diocletian when he divided the Roman empire into halves, East and West tetrarchy
Sparta's defensive battle against Persia (Xerxes). Legend is told that 300 Spartan soldiers held off waves of thousands of Persians for 3 days. Thermopylae, Battle of
Emperor of Rome following Caesar Augustus Tiberius
Tigris River
Triumvirate, First & Second
burial tomb often round in shape often found in Bronze Age archaeological sites Etruscan, Mycenenan, Trojan, Minoan, etc. Tumulus
a Greek leader chosen to lead groups of citizen soldiers/hoplites into battle tyrant
a rare purple dye made from the Murex snail found in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean sea Tyrian purple
Upper Egypt
The largest of Ancient Sumerian/Mesopotamian cities Ur
Vatican Hill
named from the estate near Bologna, Italy where early Italian cultures in the north, pre-Etruscan cultures Villanovan culture
Viminal Hill
high ranking official in Egyptian government that oversees the affairs of the country for the pharaoh vizier
Yeshua ben Yosef, Jesus
Greek god of the heavens, king of the gods, and ruler of Mt. Olympus Zeus
Created by: smithpoq