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James Usher An Anglican Archbishop from Ireland. After much deep study of the Bible he determined that the year 4004 B.C. was the date of the world’s creation. His chronology was widely used and printed in the English Bible, but was not accepted by most scholars.
Numismatics The study and collecting of coins, metals, or paper money.
Biblical Criticism This is the study and investigation of Biblical writings that seek to make discerning and discriminating judgments about the Bible passages.
Gregorian Calendar Also referred to as the Western Calendar or the Christian Calendar was the calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, for which it was also named.
The Prince Book was written by Niccolo Machiavelli. He separated the study of politics, theology and moral philosophy and filled it with scientific description and maxims of conduct through the story of how a successful ruler obtained success and how to continue.
The Treatises of Government It was a book written by John Locke that touched on political theory, published shortly after the parliamentary revolution from 1688-1689.
Leviathan Book named after the Biblical monster, Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes. The book concerns the structure of society and legitimate government and id regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of the social contract theory.
Samuel Pufendorf He is the author of the book devoted entirely to peace, the Law of Nature and of Nation, published in 1672, that followed Hugo Grotius’ Law of War and Peace.
Hugo Grotius The first to publish a book devoted entirely to the topic peace, the Law of War and Peace, published in 1625.
Kepler His first names Johannes, was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. He was a major figure in the Scientific Revolution of the Seventeenth Century.
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Orbs This book by Nicolaus Copernicus drastically reformed astronomy by placing the sun at the center around which everything orbited rather than the Earth.
Mathematic Principals of Natural Philosophy A series of books written by Sir Isaac Newton, published in 1729. It described the three laws of motion, the rules of philosophy, and his views of God.
Reasonableness of Christianity This was a book written by Baruch Spinoza, in which he argued that Christianity is a reasonable form of religion. This book softened friction between religion and natural knowledge.
Essay Concerning the Human Understanding This was John Locke’s deepest book, published in 1690 in which he faced the greatest problem at the time, knowledge, if it was possible to know things with absolute certainty and how certain knowledge was arrive at.
inductive method The inductive method begins with observations of nature; the goal being to identify powerful statements about how nature works (laws and theories).
empiricism A doctrine stating that all knowledge is derived from sense/experience.
cognito ergo sum 'I think, therefore I am'. Possibly the best known of all philosophical quotations from the French philosopher René Descartes in Discourse on Method where he attempted to prove his existence as a thinking being by thinking.
Montaigne Given the huge breadth of his readings, he could have been ranked among the most erudite humanists of the 16th century. He thought that too much knowledge could prove a burden, preferring to exert his ‘natural judgment’ to displaying his erudition.
New Atlantis Incomplete and posthumously issued, this account of an ideal state by Francis Bacon reveals both practical methods and unique fantasy.
Advancement of Learning Bacon argued that the only knowledge of importance was that which could be discovered by observation. He championed the idea of state funding for experimental science and the creation of an encyclopedia.
Vesalius He started his career as a defender of “Galenism”. As he grew familiar with human body, he began to notice Galen made mistakes. At 25, Vesalius launched assault on Galen and put together a new anatomy book that included his discoveries.
William Harvey He published An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals, explaining blood circulation and Essays on the Generation of Animals considered basis for modern embryology.
Leeuwenhoek The father of microscopy, was the first to see and describe bacteria (1674), yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of water, and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries.
Tycho Brahe He made a remarkable star catalogue of over 1000 stars. He proved that comets are not objects in the atmosphere. He showed irregularities in the moons orbit.
Heliocentric theory The Earth, moon and other planets were believed to move around the Sun in a counter-clockwise motion. Copernicus made a new model with the Sun in the middle. This new theory was known as heliocentric or Sun-centered theory.
Pierre Bayle He was a Huguenot. His life was devoted entirely to scholarship. Much of what he wrote was embedded in technical religious issues such as that of the Real Presence.
Edmund Halley He was an English astronomer who calculated the orbit of the comet now called Halley's comet. He was a supporter of Newton.
Richard Simon As a controversialist Simon displayed a bitterness which tended only to aggravate the unpleasantness of controversy. He was a man of intellect, free from all tendencies to sentimentality, and with a strong vein of sarcasm and satire in his disposition.
Jean Mabillon He was a capable student and a religiously devout young man. Throughout his life Mabillon was a monk and a scholar first, and only secondly did he allow himself to become a man of fame and controversy.
Paleograph The study of ancient writing, analyzing the handwriting or scripts of ancient people.
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