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APEH Palmer6AS

My 3 ID terms and the other terms from chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
inductive method A method in which you acquire knowledge by proceeding from the particular to the general, and if successful, we get knowledge based on observed facts of the general nature. It was a new method of acquiring knowledge, published in the Novum Organum (1620)
empiricism The founding of knowledge on observation and experience. Bacon formalized the inductive method and became a leading philosopher of empiricism.
cognito ergo sum Bacon's phrase, which means "I think, therefore I exist". He believed that he could not doubt his own existence as a thinking and doubting being. Using systematic reasoning, he deduced the existence of God and much else.
Montaigne A French essayist, who's philosophy was the eternal question "What do I know?". It led to a tolerant, humane, and broad-minded outlook, but as a system of thought it was not otherwise very constructive.
New Atlantis Published in 1627, it portrayed a scientific utopia where the people enjoyed a perfect society through their knowledge and command of nature. It showed the usefulness of knowledge which became an element in the Baconian tradition.
Advancement of Learning In this work from Bacon, he talks about how true knowledge is useful knowledge. Along with the New Atlantis, it also showed the usefulness of knowledge.
Vesalius He published a book in 1543 called The Structure of the Human Body, which renewed and modernized the study of anatomy. This helped anatomists understand the human body better.
William Harvey He published a book called "On the Movement of the Heart and Blood, which set forth the doctrine of the continual circulation of blood through the arteries and veins.
Leeuwenhoek A Dutch invention which was one of the first to see blood corpuscles, spermatozoa, and bacteria. It advanced the science even further and confirmed Harvey's findings.
Tycho Brahe He was the greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of the heavenly bodies in the generations after Copernicus. He never totally accepted the Copernican system, seeing that Copernicus's belief of the orbits didn't fit, which Kepler proved.
heliocentric theory The belief that the sun was the center of the solar system. It was mathematically simpler that the earth-centered theory, but it was a radical change in the current beliefs of the time.
Pierre Bayle He was the spokesman during the strong current of skepticism. He was influenced by the scientific discoveries, and realized that many popular beliefs were without scientific foundation.
Edmund Halley The first man to predict the return of a comet (Hally's comet). It caused people to talk about the significance of comets and what they did.
Richard Simon A French priest who published "Critical History of the Old Testament", which was the pioneering work in Biblical criticism. He used the same methods of textual criticisms to the Bible as if it were a secular document. People began to question the Bible
Jean Mabillon He was a french Benedictine monk who wrote the book "On Diplomatics", in which he established the science of paleography, which deals with deciphering, reading ,dating, and authentication of manuscripts.
James Usher An Anglican archbishop from Ireland, who announced that the creation of the world was 4004 BC. His chronological system was printed in the margins of the Authorized Version of the English Bible, but his system wasn't accepted by scholars in his own time.
paleograph The science of deciphering, reading, dating, and authentication of manuscripts. It created a way for people to create a new history using old papers and parchments.
numismatics A science that deals with ancient coins, which were far more ancient than the oldest manuscripts at the time. It added another new science along with paleography.
Biblical criticism The evolution of the sciences and movement of historical thought led to a time of doubt on the Bible, in which people were questioning the evidence and events written in the bible.
Gregorian calendar The calendar that was used in Catholic countries, and was issued in the 1600s under Pope Gregory XIII. Gradually the Gregorian calendar was accepted, and most people today use or recognize it.
The Prince A book written by Niccolo Machiavelli, in which he separated the study of politics from theology and moral philosophy. He also described how governments and rulers behaved. Governments continued to behave for the most part as Machiavelli had said.
Two Treatises of Government A book written by Locke, which was published after the parliamentary revolution of 1688. He shared the belief of Hobbes that the gov't was based of a kind of contract, but he sided with Parliament against the king in the struggles of politics.
Leviathan A book written by Hobbes, in which he said that the government must be some kind of Leviathan, because if someone questions the government, it might reopen the way to chaos. He became the leading secular exponent of absolutism.
Samuel Pufendorf He wrote a book called "Law of Nature and of Nations" (1672) about an international law to bring order into the "maze of sovereign territorial states" in Europe, and how they should all work together for the common good.
Hugo Grotius Also published a book similar to Pufendorf, called "Law of War and Peace" (1625), which held very similar beliefs as Pufendorf's books did.
Kepler Assistance and follower of Tycho, built on his ideas and expanded the Copernican theory. He discovered that the orbits of planets were ellipses. He created new laws of planetary motion.
On the Revolution of Heavenly Orbs A book by Nicholas Copernicus, published after his death on 1543. It showed his theory: the sun was the center of the solar system and the Earth was one planet revolving in space. Many people didn't except it for a while, and radically challenged beliefs.
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy A book Newton published in 1687, in which he explained and proved his calculations about universal gravitation.
Reasonableness of Christianity Another book Locke wrote, in which he argued that Christianity is a reasonable religion, and it softened the friction between religion and natural knowledge but tended to shut out the supernatural and make religious feeling into common sense
Essay Concerning the Human Understanding Locke's deepest book, in which he faced the "great problem of the day", the problem of knowledge, and if it was possible to know anything with certainty, and how certain knowledge was arrived at. He concluded that certain knowledge derived from experience
Created by: Anna Sikkink