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BSC test 2

skin, bones, muscles, joints

Layers of epidermis stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
Post-mitotic layer of epidermis stratum granulosum
layer of epidermis found only in skin that is very thick stratum lucidum
layer of epidermis with squamous cells and no nuclei or other organelles stratum lucidum
Attach to desmosomes tonofibrils
Hold cells of stratum spinosum together spiny projections
Cells that make up stratum spinosum prickle cells
Contains the vascular system in the skin dermis
Connects skin to underlying tissue hypodermis
Main cell of the stratum basale keratinocyte
Attaches basale to basement membrane hemidesmosomes
Sensor cells in stratum basale merkel cells
Levels of the epidermis most prone to cancer stratum basale and stratum spinosum
Begins vitamin D synthesis keratinocytes
Layers of the dermis reticular and papillary
Dense irregular connective tissue in the dermis Reticular layer
Areolar (loose) connective tissue in the dermis Papillary layer
Contains Meissner's corpuscles dermal papilla
Contains Pacinian corpuscles Reticular layer of dermis
downward folds of the epidermis rete ridges
upward projections of the dermis dermal papilla
Enable friction to pick up small things rete ridges
3 layers of hair cortex, medulla, cuticle
Phase of hair growth that takes weeks to years active phase
phase of hair growth that is 1-3 months then replaces old hair resting phase
phase where hair matrix of cells die regressive phase
sweat gland with watery secretions merocrine
sweat gland with viscid secretion apocrine
gland that helps with thermoregulation merocrine
gland with stem cells holocrine
gland with bigger lumen aprocrine
gland that secretes by exocytosis merocrine
gland that destroys the whole cell then secretes holocrine
cancer that originates in the spinosum squamous cell carcinoma
most common and least malignant cancer basal cell carcinoma
slow growing cancer basal cell carcinoma
most dangerous cancer because it is highly metastatic melanoma
cancer caused by environmental factors squamous cell carcinoma
cancer that appears as a lesion squamous cell carcinoma
cancer that originates in stratum spinosum squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer that appears as a brown/black patch melanoma
Estimates the volume of fluid lost in burns Rule of Nines
How long is burned skin sterile? 24 hours
Burn where only the epidermis is damaged first degree burn
Burn that involves the dermis and epidermis; skin grafting necessary 3rd degree burn
Burn that is like first degree but with blisters 2nd degree burn
Silicone epidermis bound to spongy dermal layer with collagen and ground cartilage synthetic skin
cartilage with a high water content skeletal cartilage
3 types of skeletal cartilage fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage, hyaline cartilage
Most common skeletal cartilage hyaline
cartilage with collagen and elastic fibers elastic cartilage
Growth from within interstitial growth
Only skeletal cartilage with no perichondrium fibrocartilage
Cartilage in nasal septum, trachea, ends of rubs hyaline
Growth from edges appositional
Collagen fibers are oriented in the direction of functional stress fibrocartilage
Growth where chondroblasts in periosteum secrete a new matrix appositional growth
Growth where chondrocytes divide to secrete new matrix interstitial growth
Connected with skeleton by being in intevertebral discs fibrocartilage
Bones in the skull, vertebral columns, and ribs axial skeleton
Bones of upper and lower limbs appendicular skeleton
Supports the weight of the upper body pelvic girdle
Permits a wide range of motion pectoral girdle
Site of leg attachment pelvic girdle
Middle/shaft of bone diaphysis
Plate that is usually from adult bone epiphyseal plate
Marrow in adults yellow
3 types of vertebrae cervical, thoracic, lumbar
How many cervical vertebrae? 7
how many thoracic vertebrae? 12
How many lumbar vertebrae? 5
Vertical channels in bone that makes arteries and veins go through Haversian canals
Horizontal channels that connect haversian canals Volkmann's Canal
Connects lacunae to each other canaliculi
Partial osteon interstitial lamella
Spicules that make up spongy bone trabeculae
Align lines of stress and help bone resist stress trabeculae
25% of total bone organic material collagen
Mineral component of bone hypoxyapetite
Matured bone is 65%: mineralized matrix
Provides tensile strength and flexibility fibrous component
Trigger for bone crystallization interaction of collagen fibers with GAGs of matrix material
Intramembranous ossification begins with: mesenchyme
Endochondral ossification begins with: hyaline cartilage
Ossification in long bones endochondral ossification
Ossification in flat bones intramembranous ossification
Ossification that goes straight to osteoblasts intramembranous ossification
ossification that goes from chondroblasts to osteoblasts endrochondral ossification
ossification surrounded by periosteum intramembranous ossification
covers bone ends and articulations hyaline cartilage
cells that have to die before osteoblasts come in during endochondral ossification chondroblasts
Most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate growth hormone
induce epiphyseal plates to completely ossify estrogen and testosterone
Modulates growth hormone T3 & T4
Growth in thickness of bone by: appositional growth
Osteogenic layer of periosteum has: osteoblasts
Released if blood calcium is too high PTH
released if blood calcium is too low calcitonin
Released from thyroid gland to regeulate calcium calcitonin
Law that proves bones remodel because of mechanical stress Wolffs law
Converts callus into bone in bone repair osteoblasts
Increase at fracture site will increase bone growth: electrical stimulus
How does electrical stimulus increase bone growth? partially prevents PTH from stimulating osteoclasts
Ossification that is replacing cartilage with bone Endochondral ossification
Biodegradable ceramic substance known as TCP artificial bone
Used from human cadavers in bone repair crushed bone
Caused by insufficient calcium or vitamin D Rickets
Disease caused by excessive and abnormal bone resorption and formation Paget's disease
Primary bone woven bone
secondary bone compact bone
Abnormally high woven bone to compact bone Paget's disease
Bone disease that occurs at any age because of immobility Disuse osteoporosis
Drugs that slow how much bone is dissolved Anti-resorptive drugs
How often is the entire skeleton replaced Every 10 years
Used for treatment of skeletal defects crushed bone
Looks at bone density to diagnose osteoporosis earlier DEXA
Age of peak bone mass 18 years old
Bone disease with unknown cause but linked to a viral infection Paget's
4 hormones that regulate calcium PTH, calcitonin, Vitamin D, Calcium
Slow how much bone gets dissolved Anti-resorptive drugs
Class of anti-resorptives biphosphates
Prevents further bone loss and increases bone density biphosphates
Gets into osteoclast and causes it to self-destruct biphosphate
Induces osteoclasts to dissolve bone PTH
Inhibits collagen synthesis by osteoblasts PTH
Increases calcium absorption in the body PTH
Pathway of vitamin D sun>skin (vitamin D3)>liver(calcidiol)>kidney(calcitriol)
Calcitriol acts as a: hormone
Acts directly on the small intestine to boost absorption of calcium Vitamin D
Increases calcium resorption (release) from skeleton calcitriol
acts by binding to RANKL and stimulates differentiation into osteoclasts calcitriol
Causes reabsorption of calcium by kidneys Calcitriol
Macrophages that get differentiated osteoclasts
Govern production of osteoclasts using 3 signaling molecules osteoblasts
Induces macrophages to multiply stimulating factor
protein that binds to macrophages inducing them to form osteoclasts RANKL
attaches to RANKL so it won't bind to a macrophage osteoprotegerin
Enhances osteoprotegerin estrogen
Prolongs the life of osteoblasts estrogen
Only occur between bones of the skull sutures
Joints with no joint cavity fibrous joints
Articulation edges completely filled by very short connective tissue fibers that penetrate the bone sutures
Suture at border of parietal bones serrate
suture between temporal and parietal bones lap suture
suture in palatine process of maxilla plane
Arrangement that allows infant's head to pass through birth canal free-floating bones skull separated by sutures
Premature fusing of the sutures craniosynostosis
Union of 2 or more bones to form single bones synostosis
Types of fibrous joints sutures, sydesmoses, gomphoses
Fibrous joint in which bones are connected by a ligament syndesmoses
Fibrous joint with longer fibers syndesmoses
Fibrous connection like a nail or a bolt with short peridontal ligament gomphoses
movement of gomphoses amphiarthrotic
slightly moveable joint amphiarthrotic
immovable joint synarthrotic
freely movable joints diarthrotic
Diaphysis growing is called synchondroses
Lack a joint cavity cartilaginous joints
movement of cartilaginous joints amphiarthrotic
types of cartilaginous joints synchondroses and symphyses
Means growing together symphysis
Becomes ossified and immovable (synarthrotic) when bone growth ends synchondroses
Articular surfaces of bone are covered with hyaline cartilage
Function of symphysis strength and flexibility
Located predominantly in limbs synovial joints
Filled with synovial fluid joint cavity
joint enclosed by double-layered articular capsule synovial joint
In synovial joints, comes from filtration of blood plasma synovial fluid
Makes synovial fluid viscous synovial membrane cells secrete hyaluronic acid
Makes synovial fluid slippery albumin
Warms synovial fluid exercise
Forces synovial fluid from cartilages when joint is suppressed by movement weeping lubrication
Contains phagocytic cells that rid the joint cavity of cellular debrus and nourish cartilage synovial fluid
layers of periosteum fibrous layer and osteogenic layer
layer of periosteum containing osteoblasts osteogenic layer
Bone growth in width b appositional growth
Fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane Bursa
Contains thin film of synovial fluid and is common where ligaments, etc rub bone Bursa
Elongated bursa that completely wrap around tendon subjected to friction tendon sheaths
discs or wedges of fibrocartilage that separate articular surfaces of bone menisci
divide synovial cavity into 2 separate cavities menisci
absorbs shock and pressure, improves fit between bones, and stabilizes joints menisci
Most menisci injuries occur _________ and are irreparable in avascular zones
Loss of as little as 10% of meniscus can lead to: degenerative arthritis
Treatment of choice for torn menisci arthroscopy
Stability of joint depends on: nature of articular surface and number & position of ligaments
What kind of sockets are best for stability? deep sockets like the hip
low levels of contractile activity in relaxed muscle that keeps the muscles healthy and ready to react to stimuli muscle tone
Most important stabilizing factor muscle tendons that cross the joint
Monitor position of joints and maintains muscle tone articular capsule and ligaments
Supplies articular capsule and ligaments sensory nerve endings
Muscles always in what state somewhat contractive
Every muscle is attached to the bone by at least ____ points 2
Attached to bone that does not move origin
attached to bone that moves insertion
What happens to insertion and origin when muscles contract insertion moves toward the origin
Movement of every synovial joint diarthrotic (freely movable)
Classes of synovial joints plane, hinge, pivot, saddle, ball & socket
Synovial joint with flat articular surfaces Plane joint
Synovial joint in tarsals/carpals plane joint
synovial joint that permits flexion and extension hinge joint
synovial joint that is in knee and elbow hinge joint
synovial joint that allows rotation pivot joint
synovial joint that includes the axis and atlas pivot joint
synovial joint with concave and convex articular surface shapes saddle joint
synovial joint in thumbs saddle joint
Synovial joint: articular surfaces fit together concave to convex saddle joint
most freely moving synovial joint ball and socket
three bones of the elbow ulna, radius, humerus
joint between humerus and ulna humeroulnar
joint between humerus and radius humeroradial
joint between radius and ulna radioulnar
lateral epicondylitis tennis elbow
medial epicondylitis golfer's elbow
can be caused by heavy work lifting at the elbow or repetitive movements at the wrist tennis elbow
symptom is pain on the lateral epicondyl tennis elbow
Tennis elbow treatment ice, brace, stretches, steriod injections, surgery
Tennis elbow surgery common extensor origin released from lateral epicondyle
Freely movable joint that has sacrificed stability for mobility shoulder joint
Head of humerus is in: glenoid cavity of scapula
3 bones of the shoulder humerus (upper arm), scapula (shoulder blade), clavicle (collar bone)
shoulder joint replacement surgery is also called shoulder arthroplasty
4 muscles and their tendons in rotator cuff subscapalaris, supra spinatus, infra spinatus, teres minor
formed by articulation of spherical head of femur with deep cupped acebatabulum of coxal bone hip joint
Provides most of the stability of a hip joint deep socket that encloses the femoral head & the strong ligaments
contains an artery that takes arterial blood to head of femur intracapsular ligament
largest most complex joint in the body knee joint
4 bones of knee joint tibia, femur, patella, fibula
2 joints in knee femopatellar and tibiofemoral joint
joint in the knee that is a plane joint femopatellar joint
joint in the knee that is a hinge joint tibiofemoral joint
Intermediate between patella and lower end of femur femopatellar joint
between femoral condyles above and c-shaped menisci of tibia below tibiofemoral joint
at least ____ bursae associated with the knee 12
Knee muscles that go across the knee joint quads and hamstrings
major stabilizing ligaments of the knee ACL and PCL
Hold joints together in the knee ligaments
Determining presence or absence of blood within joint can help diagnose ______ injury ACL
initial treatment of ACL injury ice, anti-inflammatories, physical therapy
Most common type of ACL reconstruction harvesting the central third of the patellar tendon with a bone block at each end of the tendon graft
Tissue most vulnerable to injury cartilaginous growth centers
Increases traction stress on growth centers during growth spurt bones grow faster than tendon-muscle unit
chronic traction & stress at tibial tubercle apophysis due to repetitive activity and tight quads osgood-schlatter injury
using a patellar strap can relieve pain from: osgood schlatter injury
leads to cartilage swelling and cortical bone fragmentation osgood schlatter injury
ligaments reiforcing joints are stretched and torn sprain
common sprain sites lumbar region of spine, ankle, and knee
Why is ligament repair slow because ligaments are poorly vascularized
Repair for completely ruptured ligaments surgery
implanted in torn ligament to form supporting mesh carbon fibers
causes cartilage tearing cartilage subjected to high pressure or twisting motion simultaneously
Why does cartilage stay torn it is avascular and can't get sufficient nourishment
occurs when bones are forced out of normal position at a joint dislocation
inflammation of bursa or tendon sheath caused by excessive stress friction or bacterial infection bursitis/tendonitis
most wide spread crippling disease in US arthritis
may result in formation of bony spurs due to increased friction arthritis
acute arthritis usually caused by & treated with: bacterial invasion, antibiotics
non-inflammatory type of arthritis, chronic arthritis osteoarthritis
Caused by degeneration of joint over time through wear and tear chronic arthritis
osteoarthritis not common in: shoulder
crunching noise made by affected joints creptitus
drugs that block the enzyme that creates the pain NSAIDs
drugs that work together to treat chronic arthritis. "synergy" motrin+tylenol
Arthritis that affects 3x as many women as men Rheumetoid arthritis
autoimmune disease with suspected cause strep bacteria rheumatoid arthritis
Arthritis that attacks the synovial membrane rheumatoid arthrits
Blood cells and swollen membranes release chemicals into synovial fluid that break down or damage joint tissues rheumatoid arthritis
systemic disease: can show up in other organs rheumatoid arthritis
excessive amount of uric acids deposited as urate crystals in soft tissues gout
arthritis more common in males gout
Genetic factors in these diseases: gout, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporsis
cells that participate in every activity that requires movement muscle cells
3 types of muscle skeletal, cardiac, smooth
generates 3/4 heat for muscles from body by muscle action
elongated and called fibers muscle cells
immature muscle cell myoblast
largest of muscle cell types skeletal muscle
Muscle must rest after short periods of activity skeletal
multinucleated muscle(s) skeletal
uninucleated muscle(s) cardiac, smooth
Makes up skeletal muscle: muscle fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers
connective tissue that wraps each individual muscle fiber endomysium
connective tissue that wraps bundles of muscle fibers (fasicles) perimysium
connective tissue that wraps the whole muscle epimysium
covers entire muscle and is located over the layer of epimysium fascia
Muscle attachment where epimysium is fused to periosteum or perochondrium direct muscle attachment
muscle attachment where muscle fascia extends beyond muscle as a rope-like tendon that anchors muscle to bone, cartilage, or another fascia indirect muscle attachment
Fascicle arrangement: long axis of fascicle rubs with longitudinal axis of muscle parallel
fascicle arrangement: fascicles are short and attach obliquely to central tendon running length of muscle pinnate
Fascicles attach to one side of tendon unipinnate
fascicles attach to central tendon opposite sides bipinnate
fascicles attach to many tenons multipinnate
fascicle arrangement: fascicles converge toward single tendon convergent
Pectoralis major fascicle arrangement convergent
fascicle arrangement: fascicles arranged in concentric circles circular
In muscle cells, contains large amounds of stored glycogen myoglobin sarcoplasm
80% of cell volume myofibrils
thick filaments myosin
thin filaments actin
contractile proteins myofilaments
filament that looks like a twisted double strand thin filaments
contain active sites for myosin binding thin filaments (actin)
2 regulatory proteins associated with actin tropomyosin and troponin
control myosin-actin interaction troponin and tropomyosin
each muscle fiber contains ___ axon one
Troponin that binds to actin TnI
troponin that binds to tropomyosin TnT
troponin that binds to Ca++ TnC
Complex of 3 polypeptides troponin
Align width of muscle cell so it appears striated myofibrils
functional contractile unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomere
What has to happen to muscles before they contract innervation
normally covers up binding spot on actin filament tropomyosin
binds with troponin to cause tropomyosin to expose actin binding site calcium
stimulates skeletal muscle cells motor neurons
2 types of excitable cells neurons & muscle cells
opens ligand-gated sodium channels ACh
diffusion of Na in cell reduces resting potential at that spot creating: end plate potential
potential reduced to _________ for action potential to be generated in cell threshold voltage
Sarcolemma is restored to initial polarized state repolarization
Restores electrical condition of resting membrane potassium diffuses from cell
Tubules surround each myofibril sarcoplasmic reticulum
Large perpendicular cross channels in SR terminal cisternae
regulate intercellular levels of Ca++ major role of SR
Formed at A-I band junction where sarcolemma penetrates the interior of the cell t tubules
sequence of events in which the transmission of an action potential along the sarcolemma leads to contraction excitation-contraction coupling
promotes formation of myosin cross bridges calcium
Production ceases shortly after breathing stops ATP
autoimmune disease that attacks and destroys ACh receptors located on muscle cells myasthenia gravis
Cause of stiffness after death known as rigor mortis ATP isn't being produced to detach myosin cross bridges
Poison that disrupts innervation by blocking ACh from attaching to receptors curare
amount of tension generated by a muscle depends on how stretched or contracted it is before stimulated length tension relationship
monitors and adjusts length of resting muscle to paintain partial contraction nervous system
length of resting muscle to maintain partial contraction muscle tone
Keeps a muscle firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulation muscle tone
consists of motor neuron and all muscle cells it controls motor unit
large motor units generate ____ force but ____ control more;less
time between stimulation and time of contraction (everything that happens before contraction place) latent period
time during which the muscle contracts and actin filaments move period of contraction
period in which muscle returns to original length; happens when trying to get myosin head off period of relaxation
Period in which calcium goes to sarcoplasmic reticulum period of relaxation
twitches vary with concentration of: calcium
How does pH affect twitches weaker
If a skeletal muscle is stimulated a second time right after contraction phase, contraction will have higher max tension treppe
Successive stimuli arrive before the relaxation phase has been completed and second twitch is stronger wave summation
wave summation can't happen under: absolute refractory period
Required for wave summation calcium
increasing the stimulation rate until the relaxation phase is eliminated tetanus
Twitch seen in artificial stimulation of a muscle tetanus
force exerted by a contracting muscle on an object muscle tension
force exerted on a muscle by the weight of an object load
muscle tension develops but the load is not moved isometric
muscle tension develops and load is not moved (pushing and muscles are contracting but nothing happens) isometric tension
muscle tension develops and the load is moved isostonic tension
Borrow phosphate groups ATP needs to be made phosphagen system
Respiration that doesnt require oxygen anaerobic
Con of anaerobic respiration glycolysis is converted to lactic acid when there is no oxygen available
Respiration that provides a large amount of ATP but takes longer because of the many steps aerobic respiration
Main factor in muscle fatigue making enough ATP
difference between resting rate of oxygen consumption and elevated rate oxygen debt
muscle with poorly developed SR smooth muscle
tiny invagnations of sarcolemma with calcium inside caveloae
Why do calveolae work smooth muscle has a large surface area so Ca++ can diffuse into cell from interstitial fluid
Muscle that lacks troponin and sarcomeres smooth muscle
Organization of muscle fibers in smooth muscle sheets of closely apposed fibers
cyclic contraction and relaxation of opposing layers allows lumen of organ to alternately constrict peristalsis-smooth muscle
muscles that lack structured neuromuscular junction smooth
innervating nerve fibers that have numerous bulbous endings varicosities
neurotransmitters released in a wide synaptic cleft in general area of smooth muscle cells diffuse junction
makes smooth muscle contractions possible gap junctions
pacemaker cells auto rhythmic cells
calcium interacts with ______ and _____ enzyme that are part of thich filament in smooth muscle contractions calmodulin
why are smooth muscles always ready to contract lack troponin
Smooth muscle contractions Ca activates calmodulin>activates kinase enzyme>transfers ATP to myosin>myosin interacts with actin (contraction)
release neurotransmitters for involuntary muscles autonomic nerve endings
allows hollow organs to fill or expand slowly to accomodate increased internal volume stress-relaxation response
certain smooth muscle fibers divide to increase numbers, like uterus during pregnancy hyperplasia
How can smooth muscle make its own connective tissue can make collagen and elastic fibers to make CT that surround their fibers
Created by: beshoe



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