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Tealpwraz1

Trail Guide to the Body: Chapters 1&2

QuestionAnswer
These attach muscle to bone. Tendons
These connect bones together at a joint. Ligaments
This is a continuous sheet of fibrous membrane located beneath the skin and around muscles and organs. Fascia
This is a small fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between two structures. Bursa
This is a form of loose fatty connective tissue. It is deposited at many levels throughout the body including the marrow of long bones, around the kidneys, the padding around joints and behind the eyeballs. Adipose Tissue
These collect lymphatic fluid from lymphatic vessels. They are bean-shaped and may range in size from a tiny pea to an almond. Lymph Nodes
This divides the body into left and right halves. Sagittal Plane
This divides the body into front and back portions. Frontal or Coronal Plane
This divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts. Transverse Plane
This term refers to a structure closer to the head. Superior
This term refers to a structure closer to the feet. Inferior
Referring to a structure on the trunk, this term means "closer to the head." Cranial
Referring to a structure on the trunk, this term means "closer to the buttocks." Caudal
This term pertains to a structure closer to the midline (or center) of the body. Medial
This term pertains to a structure farther away from the midline of the body (i.e. the pinky toe.) Lateral
Referring to the arms and legs, his is a term for a structure that is further away from the trunk or the body's midline. Distal
Referring to the arms and legs, this is a term for a structure that is closer to the trunk or the body's midline. Proximal
This term describes a structure closer to the body's surface. Superficial
This term describes a structure deeper in the body. Deep
This concerns a structure toward the back of the body. Posterior
This concerns a structure toward the front of the body. Anterior
This movement straightens or opens a joint. Extension
This movement brings bones closer together or bends a joint. Flexion
The term for when a joint can extend beyond it's normal range of motion. Hyperextension
This movement brings a limb medially toward the body. Adduction
This movement moves a limb laterally away from the body. Abduction
Occurring at the shoulder and hip joints, this movement rotates the limb in toward the midline. Medial Rotation
Occurring at the shoulder and hip joints, this movement rotates the limb out away from the midline. Lateral Rotation
This movement is possible at the shoulder and hip joints. It involves a combination of Flexion, Extension, Adduction and Abduction creating a cone-shaped movement. Circumduction
The term for lying on the table face down. Prone
The term for lying on the table face up. Supine
This movement occurs only at the axial skeleton (head, neck & vertebral column) bending to the side. Lateral Flexion
This movement describes the pivoting action of the forearm. This occurs when the radius and ulna lie parallel to each other. (like when carrying a bowl of soup.) Supination
This movement describes the pivoting action of the forearm. This occurs when the radius and ulna cross each other. (like when spilling a bowl of soup.) Pronation
This movement happens only at the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb when the thumbpad crosses the palm toward the pinky finger. Opposition
This movement elevates the foot's medial side and brings the sole of the foot medially. Inversion
This movement elevates the foot's lateral side and moves the sole laterally. Eversion
Referring to a movement made only at the ankle, this movement points your foot into the earth. (i.e. stepping on the gas pedal) Plantar Flexion
Referring to a movement made only at the ankle, this movement lifts your foot off of the earth. (i.e. letting off of the gas pedal) Dorsiflexion
Pertaining to the clavicle, head and jaw, this movement occurs when one of these structures moves anteriorly. Protraction
Pertaining to the clavicle, head and jaw, this movement occurs when one of these structures moves posteriorly. Retraction
Referring to a movement of the scapula and jaw when they move superiorly. Elevation
Referring to a movement of the scapula and jaw when they move inferiorly. Depression
This term means to wander from the usual course. Deviation
Pertaining only to the axial skeleton, this movement turns (i.e. the head and neck) from left to right along the transverse plane. Rotation
This type of joint happens when a spherical surface of one bone fits into the dish-shaped depression of another bone. Such a joint is capable of movement on every plane (circumduction). Ball-in-socket Joint
This type of joint allows only flexion and extension. Hinge Joint
This type of joint is usually between two flat surfaces and allows the least amount of movement. Only small shifting movements are possible. Gliding Joint
This type of joint consists of the oval-shaped end of one bone articulating with the elliptical basin of another bone. It permits flexion, extension and abduction and adduction as seen at the wrist. Ellipsoid Joint
This type of joint is a modified ellipsoid joint composed of a convex and concave articulating surfaces. Saddle Joint
This type of joint is designed to allow one bone to rotate around the surface of another bone. (i.e. the atlantoaxial joint) Pivot Joint
This bone is superficial and runs horizontally along the top of the chest at the base of the neck. Clavicle
This bone is in the upper back and is triangular in shape. Scapula
This bone resides in the upper arm. Humerus
What bones make up the shoulder complex? Clavicle, Scapula & Humerus
This is the superficial ridge located just off the top of the shoulder. It runs at an oblique angle to the body, stretching from the acromion to the medial border. Spine of the Scapula.
This is the long edge of the scapula that runs parallel to the vertebral column. Medial Border
Of the two angles of the scapula, this one is superficial and located at the medial border's lower end. Inferior Angle
Of the two angles of the scapula, this one is deep to the trapezius and located at the medial border's upper end. Superior Angle
This extends superiorly and laterally from the inferior angle of the scapula to the axilla. Lateral Border
This is located at the most superior aspect of the lateral border of the scapula and serves as an attachment site for the long head of the biceps brachii. Infraglenoid Tubercle
This is the triangular area inferior to the spine of the scapula. Infraspinous Fossa
This is a shallow depression located superior to the spine of the scapula. Supraspinous Fossa
This is a shallow depression located on the scapula's anterior surface. Subscapular Fossa
This is the term for the lateral aspect of the spine of the scapula located at the top of the shoulder. Acromion
The small articulation between the acromion of the scapula and the acromial end of the clavicle. Acromioclavicular Joint
This is the articulation between the sternal end of the clavicle and the sternum. Sternoclavicular Joint
This is the beak like projection fount inferior to the shaft of the clavicle. It is found in the deltopectoral groove between the deltoid and the pectoralis major fibers. Coracoid Process
This is located on the lateral side of the mid-humeral shaft. It serves as the attachment site of the converging fibers of the deltoid muscle. Deltoid Tuberosity
Located inferior and lateral to the acromion, this is the attachment site for supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor. Greater Tubercle
Smaller than the greater tubercle, this is the attachment site for the subscapularis. Lesser Tubercle
This is a bicipital groove situated between the greater and lesser tubercles. Intertubercular Groove
Deltoid Attachments Origin: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula Insertion: Deltoid Tuberosity
Deltoid Action All Fibers: Abducts shoulder Anterior Fibers: Horizontally adducts, medially rotates & flex the shoulder. Posterior Fibers: Horizontally Abducts, laterally rotates & extends the shoulder
Trapezius Attachments Origin: External occipital protuberance, medial portion of the superior nuchal line of occiput, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of C-7 throuch T-12. Insertion: Lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula
Trapezius Bilateral Action Extends the neck
Trapezius Unilateral Action Laterally flexes the neck to the same side, Rotates head and neck to opposite side, elevates the scapula & upwardly rotates the scapula
Trapezius Action of the Middle Fibers Adduct the scapula & Stabilize the scapula
Trapezius Action of the Lower Fibers Depress the scapula & upwardly rotate the scapula
Latissimus Dorsi Attachments Origin: Spinous processes of last six thorasic vertebrae, last three or four ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis, and posterior illiac crest Insertion: Crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus
Latissimus Dorsi Actions Extends, adducts and medially rotates the shoulder.
Teres Major Attachments Origin: Lateral side of the inferior angle and lower half of the lateral border of scapula Insertion: Crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus
What are the rotator cuff muscles? Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, Teres Minor & Subscapularis
Supraspinatus Attachments Origin: Supraspinous Fossa of Scapula Insertion: Greater Tubercle of Humerus
Supraspinatus Action Abducts the shoulder and stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Infraspinatus Attachments Origin: Infraspinous Fossa of Scapula Insertion: Greater Tubercle of Humerus
Infraspinatus Action Laterally rotates, adducts, extends, horizontally abducts the shoulder and stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Teres Minor Attachments Origin: Superior half of the lateral border of the scapula Insertion: Greater Tubercle of the humerus
Teres Minor Actions Laterally rotates,adducts, extends and horizontally abducts the shoulder & Stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Subscapularis Attachments Origin: Subscapular Fossa of the Scapula Insertion: Lesser Tubercle of the Humerus
Subscapularis Actions Medially rotates the shoulder & stabilizes head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Rotator Cuff tendon location on the greater and lessor tubercles of the humerus (from posterior to anterior) Teres Minor, Infraspinatus, supraspinatus & Subscapularis
Rhomboid Minor Attachments Origin: Spinous processes of C-7 & T-1 Insertion: Medial boarder of the scapula between the Spine of the scapula and inferior angle (Superior to Rhomboid Major)
Rhomboid Major Attachments Origin: Spinous processes of T-2 to T-5 Insertion: Medial boarder of the scapula between the Spine of the scapula and inferior angle (Inferior to Rhomboid Minor)
The actions of the Rhomboids (Major & Minor) Adducts, Elevates and Downwardly rotates the scapula
Levator Scapula Attachments Origin: Transverse Processes of C-1 to C-4 Insertion: Medial boarder and superior angle of the scapula
Levator Scapula Unilateral Actions Elevates, Downwardly rotates the scapula, laterally flexes head and neck & rotates head and neck to the same side
Levator Scapula Bilateral Action Extends the head and neck
Serratus Anterior Attachments Origin: Surfaces of upper 8 or 9 ribs Insertion: Anterior surface of medial border of the scapula
Serratus Anterior Action (with Origin fixed) Abducts, depresses and holds the medial border of scapula against the rib cage
Serratus Anterior Action (with scapula stabilized) May act in forced inhalation
Pectoralis Major Attachments Origin: Medial half of the clavicle, sternum & cartilage of ribs 1-6 Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of Humerus Superficial to Pectoralis Minor
Pectoralis Major Action (Whole muscle) Adducts, medially rotates the shoulder and may assist in forced inhalation (if arm is fixed)
Pectoralis Major Action (Upper Fibers) Flexes and horizontally adducts the shoulder
Pectoralis Major Action (Lower fibers) Extend the shoulder
Pectoralis Minor Attachments Origin: Ribs 3-5 Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula Deep to the Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor Actions Depresses, abducts a tilts the scapula anteriorly and assists in forced inhalation if scapula is fixed
Subclavius Attachments Origin: First rib & Cartilage Insertion: Inferior, lateral aspect of the clavicle
Subscapularis Actions Draws clavicle inferiorly & anteriorly, elevates the first rib & stabilizes the Sternoclavicular joint
This tendon is locates in the intertubercular groove of the humerus The tendon of the long head of Biceps Brachii
Biceps Brachii Attachments Origin of Short Head: Coracoid Process Origin of Long Head: Supraglenoid Tubercle of Scapula Insertion: Tuberosity of Radius and aponerosis of Biceps Brachii.
Biceps Brachii Actions Flexes the shoulder & elbow, Supinates the forearm.
Triceps Brachii Origins Long Head: Infraglenoid tubercle of Scapula Lateral Head: Posterior surface of proximal half of Humerus Medial Head: Posterior surface and distal half of humerus
Triceps Brachii Insertion Olecranon Process of Ulna
Triceps Brachii Actions (All Heads) Extends the elbow
Triceps Brachii Actions (Long Head) Extends and adducts the shoulder
Coracobrachialis Attachments Origin: Coracoid Process of Scapula Insertion: Medial surface of mid-humeral shaft
Coracobrachialis Actions Flexes and Adducts the shoulder
This is commonly called the "armpit." Axilla
This is composed of two ligaments: The trapezoid and conoid. Both ligaments stretch from the coracoid process of the scapula to the inferior surface of the clavicle. Coracoclavacular Ligament
This ligament attaches the scapula's coracoid process to it's acromion. Coracoacromial Ligament
Created by: Tealpwraz