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Ch9 All the Rest

anuria complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion.
azotemia Accumulation of nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream. Occurs when the kidney fails to filter these wastes from the blood.
calculus Stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts. Found in the kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Plural is calculi.
catheter Flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. Most commonly used to refer to a tube threaded through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine.
diuresis Increased formation and secretion of urine.
enuresis Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should’ve been established (usually by age 5). Nocturnal enuresis refers to bed-wetting at night.
frequency Greater-than-normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. Frequency is an indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.
hesitancy Decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It’s often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostrate gland.
micturition Another term for urination.
nephrology Branch of medicine involved in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the kidney. Physician is nephrologist.
renal colic Pain caused by a kidney stone. Can be excruciating and generally requires medical treatment.
stricture Narrowing of a passageway in the urinary system.
uremia accumulation of waste products (especially nitrogenous) in the bloodstream. Associated with renal failure.
urgency Feeling the need to urinate immediately.
urinary incontinence Involuntary release of urine. In some patients indwelling catheter is inserted into the bladder for continuous urine drainage.
urinary retention inability to fully empty the bladder. Often indicates a blockage in the urethra.
urology Branch of medicine involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the urinary system (and male reproductive system). Physician is a urologist.
voiding urination.
acute tubular necrosis Damage to the renal tubules due to the presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia. Results in oliguria.
diabetic nephropathy Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus.
Glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed. It becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) and hematuria.
Hydronephrosis Distention of the renal pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney; often a result of the obstruction of a ureter.
Nephrolithiasis Presence of calculi in the kidney. Usually begins with the solidification of salts present in the urine.
Nephritic syndrome (NS) Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream.
Nephroptosis Downward displacement of the kidney out of its normal location; commonly called a floating kidney.
Polycystic kidneys Formulation of multiple cysts within the kidney tissue. Results in the destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia.
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of renal pelvis & kidney.Common type of kidney disease.May result from a lower urinary tract infection that moved to the kidney via the ureters.There may be large quantities of white blood cells & bacteria in the urine.Can occur w/cystitis.
Renal cell carcinoma cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells.
Renal failure Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia. May be acute or chronic. Major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis.
Wilm’s tumor Malignant kidney tumor found most often in children.
Bladder cancer Cancerous tumor that arises from the cells lining the bladder; major sign is hematuria.
Bladder neck obstruction Blockage of the bladder outlet. Often caused by an enlarged prostate gland in males.
Cystocele Hernia or protrusion of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina.
Interstitial cystitis Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle aged women
Neurogenic bladder loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
Urinary tract infection Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system., Most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys. Most common in women because of their shorter urethra.
Blood urea nitrogen Blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that is in the blood.
Clean catch specimen Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream (halfway through urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia.
Creatinine clearance Test of kidney function.Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys.For this test, urine is collected for 24 hrs, & the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream
Urinalysis Laboratory test that consists of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of the urine.
Urine culture and sensitivity(C&S) Laboratory test of the urine for bacterial infection. Attempt to grow bacteria on a culture medium in order to identify it and determine which antibiotics it is sensitive to.
Cystography Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on x-ray.
Excretory urography(EU) Injecting dye into the bloodstream and then taking an x-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye.
Intravenous pyelogram(IVP) Injecting a contrast material into a vein and then taking an x-ray to visualize the renal pelvis.
Kidneys, ureters, bladder(KUB) X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating that kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye. Also called a flat-plate abdomen.
Retrograde pyelogram(RP) Diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.
Voiding cystourethrography X-ray taken to visualize the urethra while the patient is voiding after a contrast dye has been placed in the bladder.
Cystoscopy(cysto) Visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope.
Catheterization Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require invasive surgery
Hemodialysis(HD) Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.
Peritoneal dialysis Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes are filtered out of the blood across the peritoneum. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.
Lithotripsy Destroying or crushing stones in the bladder or urethra.
Meatotomy Incision into the meatus in order to enlarge the opening of the urethra.
Nephrolithotomy Surgical incision to directly remove stones from the kidney.
Renal transplant Surgical placement of a donor kidney.
Antibiotic Used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract.
Antispasmodic Medication to prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms.
AGN acute glomerulonephritis
ARF acute renal failure
ATN acute tubular necrosis
BNO bladder neck obstruction
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Cath catheterization
CC clean catch urine specimen
CI chloride
CRF chronic renal failure
C&S culture and sensitivity
Cysto cystoscopy
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESWL extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
EU excretory urography
GU genitourinary
HCO3 bicarbonate
HD hemodialysis
H2O water
I&O intake and output
IPD intermittent peritoneal dialysis
IVP intravenous pyelogram
K+ potassium
KUB kidney, ureter, bladder
mL milliliter
Na+ sodium
NS nephritic syndrome
pH acidity or alkalinity of urine
RP retrograde pyelogram
SG, sp. gr. specific gravity
U/A, UA urinalysis
UC urine culture
UTI urinary tract infection
VCUG voiding cystourethrography
Created by: AltheaMathews