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Ch. 5 skin

Integumentary system

QuestionAnswer
Name the 4 different types of epidermis cells. 1. keratinocytes 2.Melanocytes 3. Langerhan's cells 4. Merkel cells
Keratinocytes 1.produce keratin which gives skin its strength, flexibility, and waterproofs skin's surface 2. connects desmosomes
Melanocytes and skin 1. Produce melanin which gives skin its color which is triggered by sunlight 2. Absorbs UV light (gives skin color from tanning)
Langerhan's Cells Helps immune system by processing antigens (foreign materials)
Merkel Cells 1. Found in the deepest layer of the epidermis 2. Acts as sensor receptors (touch)
Layers of epidermis 4 (areas with little tension) or 5 (areas with high tension like the palm of your hand)
Stratum Basale (definition/anatomy) Deepest layer or the epidermis; Attached to the dermis; single row of the youngest keratinocytes resting on the basement membrane (between dermis and epidermis); Melanocytes and Merkel Cells are also found scattered thought this layer
Stratum Basale (physiology/functions) Gets all nutrients through diffusion due to lack of blood vessels in epidermis and has greatest access to nutrients; Merkel Cells communicate with the neuron
Stratum Basale and Melanin Melanocytes transport vesicles containing melanin to the keratinocytes; sunlight will trigger more melanin to be produced; melanin stays in keratinocytes and helps protect agains UV light
Stratum Spinosum Mostly Keratinocytes connected by desmosomes; cells are metabolically active and synthesize keratin; As cells move up in the layers of this layer they get more flattened and prepare to die; 2nd layer (above Stratum basale)
Stratum Granulosum Above the stratum Spinosum (3rd layer) Dead keratinocytes; all that remains is a bag of keratin; this layer is 3-5 layers thick
Stratum Lucidum Only in thick skin (5 layers like palms) and located above Stratum Granulosum in these areas (4th layer) ; A thin single layer of dead skin cells that is see through or clear
Stratum Corneum Bags of Keratin; dead cells; water tight cells held together by desmosomes and oil on the skin helps keep it water tight as well; The top or 5th layer in thick skin but the top or 4th layer in thin skin. Protects against infection
Epidermis skin cell shedding We shed dead skins cells every day; It takes epidermis cells 1 month to move from the bottom layer to the top
2 layers of dermis (connective tissue) 1. Dermal Papillae 2. Reticular Layer
Dermal Papillae (anatomy/definition) Top layer of dermis (closest to epidermis); makes up 20% of dermal layer; papillary layer (looks like nipples and indentions); The nipple projections have ridges that make up finger prints; this layer contains fibers that run parallel with the skin
Dermal Papillae (physiology/function) The nipples and indentions increase surface area and keep the epidermis from sliding around;
Reticular layer (anatomy/definition) Layer under dermal papillae; dense irregular tissue; contains blood vessels; Contains hair follicles, sweat glands and sensory organs
Reticular layer (physiology/function) blood vessels run up to epidermis and give nutrients to the cells in the stratum basale
Reticular layer and hair follicles Contain hair cells that give rise to hair; they are surrounded by nerve endings; arrector pili cause the hair to stand up; sebaceous gland produces oil
Subcutaneous Fat Is below the skin; Not a layer or part of the skin
Cleavage (tension) Lines linear clefts in the skin that indicate direction and pattern of collagen fibers; formed by fibers arranged in bundles; Incisions made parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily
Skin Appendages appendages of the skin and serve a particular function; derivatives of epidermis with a role in maintaining homeostasis; Ex. hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
Sweat glands (sudoriferous glands) (merocrine glands-secretions are excreted using exocytosis) found everywhere except nippels and external genitalia
Eccrine (sweat) glands (merocrine glands) The major sweat glands of the body (most abundant); high density on palms, sole of feet, and forehead; secrete sweat onto the skin
Sweat (characteristics and function) hypotonic blood filtrate; 99% water and some HCl so it is slightly acidic to inhibit growth of viruses; actually odorless, the odor comes from bacteria action on the sweat secretions
Apocrine (sweat) glands Confined to armpits, areola of nipples, and anogenital areas; play little role in thermoregulation; larger ducts empty into hair follicles; only develops odor when it comes in contact with bacteria; stimulated by puberty and remain dormant until then
Mammary glands Glands that produce milk; found on the chest (breast area); everyone has them (even males)
Sebaceous (oil) glands (anatomy/definition) Secrete oil that is excreted by a "puking" action (holocrine gland- secrets by the rupture of the plasma membrane and lysis of the secretory cell); alveolar glands- secretory units have saclike dilatations; found everywhere except palms and soles of feet
Sebaceous (oil) glands (physiology/function) They secrete to keep the skin being soft and smooth; secrete sebum ("puking" action); secretions are stimulated by androgens
Sebum oily or waxy substance made of lipid and cell fragments; functions in lubrication, slow water loss, protects skin from infections
Acne develops when: hair follicles become plugged with sebum and dead skin cells; bacteria then trigger inflammation and infection
Functions of hair 1.Allows us to communicate with the environment 2.Blocks sun and protects us from the environment
Location of hair covers entire body except palms, soles, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia
Anatomy of hair made up of filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells or "hard keratin"
main parts of hair 1.Shaft- projects from the skin 2.Root- embedded in the dermis of the skin
3 layers of cells in hair 1.Medula- inner layer 2.Cortex- middle layer 3.Cuticle- outer layer
Split ends the cuticle comes off or separates from the shaft and exposes the inner layers (cortex, and if bad enough, the medula)
Hair will always have... a cuticle and cortex but not always a medulla
Hair matrix cells produce hair; interspersed with melanocytes
Melanocytes and hair Can produce a large array of colors; gray hair is caused by no melanon being produced
Nerve ending in hair... only in hair bulb; none are found in the shaft
As hair grows... cells die
Cells outside of the cuticle (outer layer) are modified epithelial cells
Hair care a multibillion dollar business
Functions of hair 1.Allows us to communicate with the environment 2.Blocks sun and protects us from the environment
Location of hair covers entire body except palms, soles, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia
Anatomy of hair made up of filamentous strands of dead keratinized cells or "hard keratin"
main parts of hair 1.Shaft- projects from the skin 2.Root- embedded in the dermis of the skin
3 layers of cells in hair 1.Medula- inner layer 2.Cortex- middle layer 3.Cuticle- outer layer
Split ends the cuticle comes off or separates from the shaft and exposes the inner layers (cortex, and if bad enough, the medula)
Hair will always have... a cuticle and cortex but not always a medulla
Hair matrix cells produce hair; interspersed with melanocytes
Melanocytes and hair Can produce a large array of colors; gray hair is caused by no melanon being produced
Nerve ending in hair... only in hair bulb; none are found in the shaft
As hair grows... cells die
Cells outside of the cuticle (outer layer) are modified epithelial cells
Hair care a multibillion dollar business
2 types of hair 1.Terminal 2.Vellus
Terminal hair all visible (or dark) hair; usually longer and more coarse than vellus hair; Ex. Hair on top of head
Vellus hair "Peach fuzz"; blonde or white hair; usually not extremely visible; usually less coarse and shorter than terminal hair
Terminal hair vs. Vellus hair They are really not extremely different they are just two extremes of a spectrum; hair can switch back and forth between terminal and vellus states
Vellus to Terminal Usually cause by puberty; Testosterone turns mens vellus hair to terminal hair at puberty (ex. beard, leg hair, ect.); There is very little testosterone in women but just enough to change some of their vellus hair at puberty as well (ex. leg hair)
Terminal to Vellus Not as common as vellus to terminal; terminal hairs will become dormant and turn to vellus hairs (growth cycle); because of this process we loose an average of 90 hairs a day; most common hair type in women
Hair growth largely impacted by diet and hormones
Alopecia Thinning of the hair that is age related; Due to the growth cycle of hair being slowed down with age so it takes the hair follicles longer to get out of the dormant stage and begin the cycles again
3 stages of hair growth cycles 1.Anagen- Growth phase (longest phase) 2.Catagen- Transitional phase (follicle shrinks and lower part is destroyed) 3.Telogen- Resting phase (Hair falls out and follicle is dormant until the next growth phase and the cycle starts over)
Growth Cycles At the end of the telogen phase the follicle will remain dormant for 5-6 weeks and then will restart phases; Hair is constantly going through these phases; each follicle will go through at their own pace regardless of the stage of surrounding follicles
True (Frank) baldness "male pattern baldness"; genetically determined and sex-influenced condition; recessive train found on the X chromosome; Males have to get it from their mother; females can also get it but it is more rare; caused by follicular response to DHT
DHT Dihydrotestosterone; prevents nutrients from reaching hair follicle
Types of skin cancer 1.Basal cell carcinoma 2.Squamous cell carcinoma 3.Melanoma
Basal cell carcinoma Least malignant (cancerous); Stratum basale cells proliferate and invade dermis; more common in areas frequently exposed to the sun; This is a cancer of the keratinocytes
Squamous cell carcinoma cancer of the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosa; grows rapidly, metastasizes; good outcome if caught early
Melanoma Most dangerous because it metastasizes very rapidly and is resistant to chemotherapy; cancer of melanocytes; occurs in preexisting moles 1/3 of the time
ABCD rule A- asymmetry: two sides dont match B- border irregularity: indentations in border C- color: pigmented spot contains several black colors D- diameter: Larger than 6mm diameter (pencil eraser)
Burn classifications First degree, second degree, and third degree
First degree Least serious; only the epidermis is damaged; symptoms include localized redness, swelling, and pain
Second degree epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged; symptoms include the first degree symptoms as well as blisters forming in burnt area due to fluid accumulation between dermis and epidermis
Third degree Most serious; entire thickness of the skin is damaged; symptoms include grey-white, cherry red, or black color in the burned area; there is no initial edema or pain due to nerve endings being destroyed
Assessing burned area Rule of nines- quick tool to estimate fluid loss; divide the body into 11 regions with a generic % of the body that region takes up; most regions are 9% but some are less or more
Burns considered critical if: over 25% of the body has 2nd degree burns; over 10% of the body has 3rd degree burns; there are 3rd degree burns on face, hands, or feet
Created by: Rootb