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AHuman Structure Wk3

Which M is used in the surprise facial expression? Frontalis M
Which M is used in the kissingfacial expression? Orbicularis Oris M
Which M is used in the Doubt facial expression? Mentalis M
Which M is used in the Frowning facial expression? Depressor Anguli Oris M
Which M is used in the Smile facial expression? Zygomaticus Major
Which M is used in the False Smile facial expression? Risorius
Which M is used in the Anger facial expression? Corrugator Supercilli M
Which M is used in the Snear? facial expression? Nasalis M
Which M is used in the Sadness facial expression? Procerus M
Which nerve supplies the motor function to the face? Facial N
Which nerve supplies the sensory to the face? Trigeminal N
- What is Bell's palsy? facial paralysis with an unknown cause; Idiopathic Unilateral Facial paralysis; The paralysis can occur overnight;
- What are symptoms of Bell's Palsy? Upper facial area: can not wrinkle forehead, eyebrow is depressed, eyelid sagging, cannot completely close the orbicularis M; Lower facial area: when drink mouth leaks, can't completely close mouth, saggin gocrner of mouth, can not whistle, blow, smile
What could cause Bell's palsy? And how do you treat? environmental, stress, trauma; antiinflammtaory or antiviral drugs; but don't "cure" just help
What could cause a lack of taste to the anterior 2/3 of tongue, decreased salivation, reduced lacrimation among other things? Bell's palsy
What is central seven? paralysis of the lower half of the facial muscles on one side of the face
Is the ophthalmic division sensory or motor? sensory
Is the maxillary division sensory or motor? sensory
Is the mandibular division sensory or motor? both
What is Neuralgia? It is a sharp, shocking pain that follows the path of a nerve and is due to irritation or damage to the nerve.
What is Trigeminal neuralgia? nerve disorder that causes a stabbing or electric-shock-like pain in parts of the face. Symptoms: Very painful, sharp electric-like spasms that usually last a few seconds or minutes. It is paroxysmal pain [sudden attack] along the trigeminal nerve.
What might cause trigeminal neuralgia? aberrant [departing from standard] blood vessels, aneurysms, tumors, or chronic meningeal inflammation.
How would you treat trigeminal neuralgia? can section the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve in the trigeminal cave, also medicine may provide relief
What is another name for trigeminal neuralgia? tic douloureux
What is the danger area of the face? area of the face near the nose drained by the facial veins; pustules, pimples or skin infections along the nose and upper lip mayspread to the cavernous dural sinus through the facial V, pterygoid venous plexus, and ophthalmic VV
Which layer of the scalp is the danger zone? Loose connective Tissue: sometimes referred to as the "danger zone" b/c of the ease infectious agents can spread through it to emissary veins [valvless veins that drain external VV into the dural venous sinuses] which then drain into the cranium.
What are the layers of the scalp? Skin, connective Tissue; Aponeurosis; Loose connective tissue; Pericranium
Which root does the lesser occipital N come from? ventral primary rami of C2 [sensory]
Which root does the greater occipital N come from? dorsal primary rami of C2 [sensory]
What causes a scalp hemorrhage? laceration of the AA in dense connective tissue layer that are unable to retract and thus remain open causing profuse bleeding
Which plane would cause the widest gapes in a deep scalp wounds cutting through the epicranial aponeurosis? coronal plane
What would an infection spread through the loose connective tissue layer cause? meningitis [infection of meninges of brain or spinal cord] or septisemia [presence of bacteria in the blood and associated with severe infections]
Origin- orbicularis oris Maxilla above incisor teath
Origin- middle Pharyngeal Constrictor hyoid bone
Origin- superior Pharyngeal Constrictor medial pterygoid plate, sid eof tongue, mylohyoid line of mandible, pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe
Origin- buccinator alveolar processes, pterygomandibular raphe, mandible
Origin- Zygomaticus major zygomatic arch
Origin- Posterior belly of digastric posterior belly - mastoid process of temporal bone
Origin- medial Pterygoid deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate, pyramidal process of palatine bone superficial head: tuber of maxilla
Origin- lateral Pterygoid superior head form infratemporal surface of sphenoid, inferior head from lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid
Origin- occipitofrontalis superior nuchal line; upper orbital margin
Origin- palatopharyngeus aponeurosis of soft palate
Origin- salpingopharyngeus cartilage of the Eustachian tube
Origin- stylopharyngeus Styloid process (temporal)
Origin- levator veli palatini petrous part of temporal bone, Eustachian tube
Origin- tensor veli palatini scaphoid fossa, spine of sphenoid, cartilage of auditory tube
Origin- palatoglossus soft palate aponeurosis
Origin- musculus uvulae posterior nasal spine of palatine bone, palatine aponeuroisis
Insertion- orbicularis oris Skin around the lips
Insertion- middle Pharyngeal Constrictor median raphe
Insertion- superior Pharyngeal Constrictor median raphe and pharygneal tubercle of skull.
Insertion- buccinator angle of mouth
Insertion- Zygomaticus major angle of mouth
Insertion- Posterior belly of digastric Intermediate tendon (hyoid bone)
Insertion- medial Pterygoid medial angle of the mandible
Insertion- lateral Pterygoid neck of mandible, articular disk and capusle of temporomandibular joint
Insertion- occipitofrontalis galea aponeurotica
Insertion- palatopharyngeus Upper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers)
Insertion- salpingopharyngeus MM of pharynx
Insertion- stylopharyngeus thyroid cartilage (pharynx)
Insertion- levator veli palatini soft palate aponeurosis
Insertion- tensor veli palatini hooks around hamulus and inserts on soft palate aponeurosis
Insertion- palatoglossus tongue
Insertion- musculus uvulae mucous membrane of uvula
Blood Supply- buccinator buccal artery
Blood Supply- Zygomaticus major facial artery
Blood Supply- medial Pterygoid pterygoid branches of maxillary artery
Blood Supply- lateral Pterygoid pterygoid branches of maxillary artery
Blood Supply- palatopharyngeus Facial artery
Blood Supply- levator veli palatini facial artery
Innervation- orbicularis oris facial nerve
Innervation- middle Pharyngeal Constrictor Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Innervation- superior Pharyngeal Constrictor Vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Innervation- buccinator facial nerve
Innervation- Zygomaticus major facial nerve
Innervation- Posterior belly of digastric posterior belly - facial nerve (CN VII)
Innervation- medial Pterygoid mandibular nerve
Innervation- lateral Pterygoid mandibular nerve
Innervation- occipitofrontalis facial nerve
Innervation- palatopharyngeus vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Innervation- salpingopharyngeus vagus nerve via pharyngeal plexus
Innervation- stylopharyngeus glossopharyngeal nerve
Innervation- levator veli palatini vagus nerve
Innervation- tensor veli palatini mandibular nerve
Innervation- palatoglossus vagus nerve
Innervation- musculus uvulae Vagus N
Action- orbicularis oris pucker the lips; closes lips or purse
Action- middle Pharyngeal Constrictor Swallowing; constircts lower phayrnx
Action- superior Pharyngeal Constrictor Swallowing; constricts upper pharynx
Action- buccinator compress the cheeks against the teeth (blowing)
Action- Zygomaticus major draws angle of mouth upward and laterally [smile]
Action- Posterior belly of digastric elevates hyoid and floor of mouth, depresses mandible
Action- medial Pterygoid elevates mandible, and protracts mandible
Action- lateral Pterygoid depresses mandible and protracts
Action- occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows and wrinkles forehead [surprise]
Action- palatopharyngeus elevates pharynx and larynx; closes nasopharynx
Action- salpingopharyngeus elevates pharynx; opens auditory tube
Action- stylopharyngeus elevate the larynx, elevate the pharynx, swallowing
Action- levator veli palatini elevates soft palate
Action- tensor veli palatini tension of the soft palate
Action- palatoglossus raising the back part of the tongue
Action- musculus uvulae elevates uvula
Origin- orbicularis oculi medial orbital margin; medial palpebral ligament; lacrimal bone
Origin- platysma superficial fascia over upper part of deltoid and pectoralis major
Origin- masseter zygomatic arch
Origin- temporalis temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull; temporal fossa
Origin- depressor anguli oris oblique line of mandible
Origin- styloglossus Styloid process of temporal bone
Origin- stylohyoid styloid process (temporal)
Origin- nasalis Maxilla lateral to incisive fossa
Insertion- orbicularis oculi skin and rim of orbit, tarsal palte, lateral palpebral raphe
Insertion- platysma mandible, skin and MM over mandible and angle of mouth
Insertion- masseter lateral surface of coronoid process and ramus of mandible, and angle of mandible
Insertion- temporalis coronoid process and ramus of the mandible
Insertion- depressor anguli oris angle of mouth
Insertion- styloglossus tongue
Insertion- stylohyoid hyoid bone
Insertion- nasalis Nasal bone, bridge on nose
Blood Supply- orbicularis oculi ophthalmic, zygomatico-orbital, angular
Blood Supply- masseter masseteric artery
Blood Supply- temporalis deep temporal
Blood Supply- depressor anguli oris facial artery
Innervation- orbicularis oculi facial nerve
Innervation- platysma facial nerve
Innervation- masseter masseteric nerve of mandibular N(V3)
Innervation- temporalis third branch (mandibular nerve) of the trigeminal nerve
Innervation- depressor anguli oris facial nerve
Innervation- styloglossus Hypoglossal nerve
Innervation- stylohyoid facial nerve (CN VII)
Innervation- nasalis facial nerve
Action- orbicularis oculi closes eyelids
Action- platysma depresses lower jaw and lip and angle of mouth [sadness]; wrinkles skin of neck
Action- masseter elevation (as in closing of the mouth) and retraction of mandible
Action- temporalis elevation and retraction of mandible
Action- depressor anguli oris depresses angle of mouth [frowning]
Action- styloglossus elevates and retracts tongue
Action- stylohyoid Elevate the hyoid during swallowing
Action- nasalis Compresses nostrils and dilates nostrils
What is Frey's Syndrome? after injury to the auriculotemporal nerve there is no salivation in response to food, instead flushing and sweating; after the nerve is severd the nerve fibers regenerate along the wrong pathways and innervate the wrong gland [parotid vsv sweat]
What does the auriculotemporal nerve do? carries parasympathetic secretomotor fibers to the parotid gland and sympathetic fibers to the sweat glands
What might happen if you fracture your squamous part of the temporal bone? rupture the middle meningeal A
What would rupturing your middle meningeal A cause? epidural hematoma with increased intracranial pressure
What is another name for Mumps? epidermic parotitis
What is mumps? infectious and contagious viral infection that irritates the auriculotemporal N which causes severe pain b/c of inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland. It is characterized by inflammation of salivary glands.
What are some signs of mumps? chills, headache, fever, sore throat, inflamamation of the testes or ovaries causing sterility; inflammation of salivary glands
What is the joint action when the jaws are slightly opened? hinge action predominates
What is the joint action when the jaws are widely opened? hinge and gliding action combined
How would anterior dislocation of the temporomandibular joint occur? during yawning and laughing the mandible head glides across the articular tubercle anteriorly
How could posterior dislocation of the temporomandibular joint occur? a blow to the chin with the mouth closed may drive the mandibular head superiorly and posteriorly causing fracture to the auditory canal and the floor of the middle cranial fossa
How can you damage the facial nerve? swelling causing pressure to the nerve can cause damage; could occur during surgery to parotid gland among other things including an ear infection to the middle ear
What is the part of the head that houses the brain? Neurocranium or back of the skull
What is the part of the head that is from the eye down? viscerocranium which is the facial skeleton
What is the norma frontalis? it is the study of the skull from the front
What causes an elongation of the styloid process? What's treatment? What can it cause? Calcification of styloid syndrome is an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. Causes occasional pain in the neck. Treatment is primarily surgical. 3 potential syndromes: Costen's, Trotter's and Myofacial painful syndrome.
What is the only thing in the anterior cranial fossa? CN1, Olfactory N
Which nerves are in the middle cranial fossa? CN 2 ,3, 4, 5, 6
What lays on the cribriform plate? olfactory bulb and olfactory N
What goes through the optic canal? optic N and Ophthalmic A
What Goes through the superior orbital fissure? oculomotor N [CN3], Trochlear N [CN 4] Ophthalmic N [CNV1], Abudcens N [CN6], Ophthalmic VV, and Sympathetic Fibers
What Goes through the Foramen Rotunda? Maxillary N[CNV2]
What Goes through the Foramen Lacerum? Deep petrosal N, small VV [internal carotids pass horizontally across foramen lacerum]
What Goes through the Foramen Ovale? Mandibular N [CN V3] , Accessory meningeal A
What Goes through the Foramen Spinosum? Middle Meningeal A
What Goes through the Internal Auditroy Canal? Facial N [CN 7]
What Goes through the Jugular Foramen? CN 9, 10, 11, superior bulb of jugular V
What Goes through the Hypoglossal Canal? Hypoglossal N [CN 12]
What Goes through the Foramen Magnum? medulla and meninges, vertebral AA, CN 11, dural VV, anterior and posterior spinal AA
What forms the anterior cranial fossa? It is formed by the orbital plates of the frontal, the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, and the small wings and front part of the body of the sphenoid;
What makes up the posterior cranial fossa? The posterior skull base consists of three bones: the occipital, temporal, and sphenoid which form the posterior, middle, and anterior portions of the posterior skull base, respectively.
What fills the posterior cranial fossa? cerebellum and brainstem
What fills the middle cranial fossa? temporal pole
What fills the anterior cranial fossa? frontal lobe
What are the bones of the middle cranial fossa? sphenoid, temporal, and parietal
What are the bones of the anterior cranial fossa? ethmoid, frontal, and the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
What are the bones of the posterior cranial fossa? occipital bone, posterior part of parietal bone, posterior part of temporal bone, and posterior part of sphenoid bone
What does the olfactory N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Senses smell, Sensory, lays on cribriform plate
What does the Optic N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Senses sight; Sensory, through Optic canal
What does the Oculomotor N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? MM that constrict pupil, focus lens, move eye [not lateral or superior oblique M] ; Motor; Superior Oblique Fissure
What does the Trochlear N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Move the superior Oblique M; Motor, Superior Orbital Fissure
What does the Tirgeminal N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Touch, Temp, Pain, Upper face; Both Motor and Sensory;
What does the Opthalmic N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Sensory; through the superior orbital fissure
What does the Maxillary N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Sensory; goes through the foramen rotunda; sensory for mid face
What does the Mandibular N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Sensory and MM of mastication; both motor and sensory; foramen ovale
What does the Abducent N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Superior orbital fissure; motor; lateral rectus M
What does the Facial N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Stylomastoid foramen and Internal Acoustic Meatus; Both ; Sensory- anterior 2/3 of tongue taste; Motor- facial expression, salivary and lacrimal glands
What does the Vestibulocochlear N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Internal Acousti Meatus, Sensory, Vestibular = balance; Cochlear= hearing
What does the Glossopharyngeal N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Jugular foramen; Both Taste- posterior 1/3 of tongue, Motor- stylopharygngeus M and parotid gland
What does the Spinal Accessory N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Jugular Foramen; Motor; Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius MM
What does the Vagus N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Jugular Foramen, Both: Sensory and motor for neck, thorax, abdominopelvic smooth M; sensory for back of tongue
What does the Hypoglosaal N do? Is it sensory or motor? And where does it go through? Hypoglossal Canal; Mmotor; Extrinsic and Intrinsic M of tongue except palatoglossus M which is Vagus N
What are the funcitons of the Oculomotor N? Motor movement for the ciliary MM [muscles that control accomodation of eye] and extraocular MM [MM that control movement of the ey]
What is the funciton of the trigeminal N? Sensory for all the face [Opthalmic- uppe face; Maxillary- Middle face; Mandibular- lower face] and MM of mastication [1st branchial arch MM]
What is one thing that comes from the 1st branchial arch? muscles of mastication
What is another name for the cerebral arterial circle and what makes it up? circle of willis; posterior cerebral A, Posterior communicating A, Internal carotid A, Anterior cerebral A, Anterior communicating A
Where is the thinnest skin in the body? skin of eyelids is thinnest skin in body- 1-2mm thick
What nerve to you infiltrate for dental anesthesia? infraorbital N
What do you anesthesize if you inject an anesthetic into the infratemporal fossa? mandibular nerve block; this will anesthetize the mandibular teeth, lower lip, chin and tongue; remember the diagram with the pterygopalatine fossa and a bunch of stuff you couldn’t remember…
What does swelling of the parotid gland do to the ear? pushes ear lobe superiorly and laterally
What is swellin gof the parotid gland? mumps
What is in danger of injury during a parotidectomy and what is the result? facial nerve could be injured causing paralysis of facial MM
What causes the scalp to bleed so profusily? there are collagen fibers and if the blood vessel is cut the connective tissue holds the lumen open resulting in profuse bleeding
What area of the scalp is the dangerous area? loose connective tissue
How would an infection in the loose connective tissue get to the cranial cavity? through emissary VV
Injury to what A could cause an epidural hematoma? 3 middle meningeal A- blood accumulates between the skull and the dura
What is a subdural hematoma? Cerebral VV may bleed as a complication of head injury into the space between the dura and the arachnoid mater. The accumulation of the blood is a subdural hematoma
- What could be ruptured if base of skull is fractured? Internal carotid A may rupture within the cavernous sinus
- What would rupturing the internal carotid A within the cavernous sinus cause? This causes a reflux of blood into the opthalmic VV. This causes the orbit to engorge and the eyeball to protrude and pulsate in synchrony with the radial pulse [pulsating exophthalmos]
- What is pulsating exophthalmos? rupturing the internal carotid A within the cavernous sinus. This causes a reflux of blood into the opthalmic VV. This causes the orbit to engorge and the eyeball to protrude and pulsate in synchrony with the radial pulse [pulsating exophthalmos]
- If you needed to do surgery on the pituitary gland how would you access it? the sphenoidal sinus and nasal cavity.
- IF there isa sinus infection in the maxillary sinus how would you drain it? When head is upright the maxillary sinus can not drain. If there is an infection and it persists then an opening is surgically created through the inferior meatus near the floor of the maxillary sinus to promote drainage
- What could occur if the mucosa superior to the maxillary or premorlar tooth is torn during extraction? a fistula could form between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus
- What is a fistula? a fistula is an abnormal[1] connection or passageway between two epithelium-lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect. It is generally a disease condition, but a fistula may be surgically created for therapeutic reasons.
What is the treatment process for bells palsy? start with 80mg of prednisome and taper off
The Facial N gives off what N that synapses in the pterygopalatine ganglion and innervates the lacrimal gland? Greater petrosal N. So there are preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of facial N in the greater petrosal N which synapse in the pterygopaltine ganglion and then those postganglionic fibers innervate the lacrimal gland to secrete.
What N does the Facial N give off that innervates the Submandibular Gland? Chorda Tympani. It synapses in the submandibular ganglion and then follows the lingual N which then stimulates the gland to secrete saliva.
Parasympathetic innervation of the submandibular gland would cause what? Increased watery saliva secretions. Remember dry mouth when scared or sympathetic.
Which N off the facial N provides the taste fibers to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? chorda tympani [preganglionic parasympathetic fibers]
What ear M can be paralyzed by damage to CN 7? The stapedius muscle- M in middle ear- protects to loud noises -- primarily chewing. Innervated by tympanic branch of CN7. When paralyzed [sometimes in Bell's Palsy] there may be heightened perception of loud noises on one ear vs. the other.
What protective measure to eye must you do with Bell's Palsy? use an eye patch when sleeping to prevent damge to cornea because can not close eye
What are symptoms of Central 7? facial paralysis on lower half of face. Not forehead
Why can a patient with Central 7 wrinkle both sides of the forehead? temporal branch of facial N- motor input = both hemispheres. zygomatic, buccal, mandibular & cervical branches- info from contralateral hemispheres. damage to facial N above facial Nucleus = temp branch innervated by other non damaged brain side
Explain the difference in the lesions between Bells and Central 7. lesion above facial nucleus=Central 7. temporal branch still innervated by other side of brain & still functions. Facial N damaged below facial nucleus = no compensatory input from other neuron so all branches of the facial N will no function.
What causes Central 7? Tumors and stroke
What MM does the Mandibular N innervate for motor function? Mylohyoid M, Anterior belly of digastric M, Tensor tympani M [dampens sounds], tensor veli palatini, and MM of mastication: Masseter M, Temporalis M, Lateral Pterygoid M, Medial Pterygoid M
What does the Buccal branch of the facial N do? Motor for Buccinator
What does the Buccal branch of the Mandibular N do? Sensory for Buccinator
Which two branches of Trigeminal N is the pain from Tix douloureux most commonly assoicated with? Opthalmic and Maxillary divisions.
What scalp layer do you find hair follicles? Skin
What layer of scalp do you find sweat glands? Connective tissue. There are alos lots of blood vessels.
If you cut what layer, you can't stop bleeding because there are a lot of blood vessels? Dense Connective Tissue
Cutting which layer of the scalpin a coronal direction will cause a scalp gape? aponeurosis
The emissary VV communicate with what causing the loose connective tissue layer to be the dangerous area? Emissary VV communicate with cranial dural sinuses that then cause the infection to get into the cranial cavity
A scalp infection spreads through what to get to the dural venous sinuses? Emissary VV allow infection to spread from the loose connective tissue across the calvaria [skull cap] to the dural venous sinuses
What N lets you feel kissing? lingual N???
When you damage the skull which A do you damage? Middle Meningeal A
What are the 2 components of the chorda tympani? taste fibers to anterior 2/3 of tongue [joins lingual N]; and has preganglionic parasympathetic fibers that go to submandibualr ganglion then to gland
Which nerve does the chorda tympani come off of? facial N
If you cut the chorda tympani below the foramen ovale what happens? damage sensory fibers to anterior 2/3 of tongue and the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers so can not secrete saliva from submandiublar and sublingual gland.
Which ganglion gives rise to the chorda tympani? geniculate ganglion- Colelction of sensory fibers of the facial N and is located in the facial canal.
What is the otic ganglion? it is a small, oval shaped flattened parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa. It gives innervation to the parotid gland for salivation. 1 of 4 parasympathtic ganglion in head and neck.
What is the pathway [nerve changes] for the glossopharyngeal N to the Otic ganglion? And what kind of fibers does it have at this point? Glossopharyngeal N --> Tymnpanic N --> Tympanic Plexus --> Lesser petrosal n --> Otic Ganglion. Before the ganglion they are preganglionic parasympathetic fibers. In ganglion it synapses.
What do the auriculotemporal N fibers turn into when they leave the otic ganglion? And which N does it travel with? now parasympathetic postganglionic fibers from otic gland and joins the auriculotemporal temporal n where it hitches a ride to the parotid gland.
Which ganglion supplies most of the head and necks postganglionic parasympathetic fibers? superior cervical ganglion
Which artery does the auriculotemporal N encircle? middle meningeal A
What kind of fibers does the auriculotemporal N have? And what does it supply? both parasympathetic postganglionic fibers to the parotid gland and sympathetic fibers to blood vessels in the parotid gland and sweat glands and hair follicles in temporal region
What is significant about the pterygoid venous plexus? tributaries correspond w/ branches of maxillary A which communicates w/ facial V & cavernous sinus. Infection in 1 of tributary VV could cause an infection in the cavernous sinus causing cavernous sinus syndrome. This is also bc the VV are valveless
Where is the parotid gland located? In the retromandibular space [behind mandible but in front of mastoid process]
Which is the largest of the 3 salivary glands? parotid gland
What covers the parotid gland? Tightly covered by dense connnective tissue called parotid sheath from the investing layer of deep cervical fascia.
What happens if you have inflammation of parotid gland? Which n is affected? have inflammation of partoid gland then the sheath is stretching out. So auriculotemporal n sensory fibers compressed and feel severe pain.
When does parotid gland secrete saliva? Secrete mostly in response to parasympathetic large amoutns of watery saliva that conzatins enzymes.
Which fibers innervate the parotid gland? mostly parasympathetic but some sympathetic fibers
Where does the parotid duct dump? into the oral cavity next to the upper maxillary 2nd molar
What intensifies the pain in epidermic parotitis? Mumps- pain is intensified by chewing and swallowing. Virus runs along the auriculotemporal N.
Where are the 2 synovial joint cavities of the temporomandibular joint? one is between bone and articular disk [gliding joint] and the other is between the articular tubercle and the mandible [hinge joint]
What does the gliding joint of the temporomandibular joint do? protrudes or protracts or retracts the jaw
What is the only other joint with an articular disk other than the temporomandibular joint? sternoclavicular joint
How can the lower hinge joint become disarticulated? big laughs and yawning can cause the head of the condylar process to pass over the tubercle . Just push back in.
What covers the temporomandibular joint? joint capsule
Which 3 ligaments support the temporomandibular joint? lateral temporomandibular ligament [insert on neck of mandible from articular tubercle]; sphenomandibular ligament [sphenoid --> lingula], and thee stylomandibular ligament [styloid --> angle]
What are the 4 parasympathetic ganglion in the head and neck? Ciliary, Otic, Submandibular , and Pterygopalatine.
Chorda Tympani goes to which gland? Lingual Gland
Which bone surrounds the foramen magnum? occipital bone
Which bone is the center of the skull? sphenoid
What feature of the head is a projeciton of the brain? eyes
What does it mean to be a cranial nerve? they are simply nerves that exit the skull, they don’t necessarily have to comeoff the brain eg accesory nerve
There are 3 holes in the anterior portion of the skull that line up. Which major CN is the supplier for these 3 nerves? trigeminal N
Which A supplies thedura? Middle meningeal A
What goes through the foramen cecum? a little vein
What goes through the cribriform plate? olfactory NN
What is the diaphragm sella and what does it house? dura mater that roofs the hypophyseal fossa of the sella trucica and it retains the pituitary gland. Infundibulum [pit stalk] passes through it. Inn- Opthalmic
What does cerebellum mean? beautiful brain
What is coronal line running in the middle of the brain? central sulcus
What is the name of the space inbetween the temporal lobe and the frontal? lateral fissure
What is the midbrain? junciton between cerebrum and brain stem
What is the medulla devevlopmentally? rostral continuation of the spinal cord
Which fossa is the occipital pole in? middle cranial fossa
What is the supratentorial region? area located above the tentorium cerebellum
What is the infratentorial region? the area below the tentorium cerebelli
Which is worse supra or infra tentorial issue? infratentorial. Cerebellum involved in motor control among other things
What is the function of the falx cerebri? separates brain into right and left halves
If someone couldn't taste which CN would they have an issue with? most likely olfactory
Define the bony boundaries of the middle cranial fossa. Everything above the petrous bone of temporal bone to lesser wing of sphenoid is middle cranial fossa.
Most NN in the middle cranial fossa go where? to the eye
Which major artery goes throught he foramen lacerum? internal carotid A
What major N goes through the foramen lacerum? greater petrosal N
If the optic chiasm became inflammed what would be pushed on? pituitary gland
What is the carotid siphon? when the internal carotid A goes up and makes a hook
What does the internal carotid A supply? eyes and part of brain
Origin- corrugator supercilli medial supraorbital margin
Insertion-corrugator supercilli Skin of medial eybrow
A- corrugator supercilli draws eyebrows downward medially [anger, frowning]
I- corrugator supercilli Facial N
O- Procerus nasal bone and cartilage
I- Procerus skinbetween eyebrows
N- Procerus Facial N
A- Procerus wrinkles skin over bones [sadness]
O- Depressor Septi incisive fossa of maxilla
I- Depressor Septi ala and nasal septum
N- Depressor Septi facial N
A- Depressor Septi constricts nares
O- Levator Anguli Oris canine fossa of maxilla
I- Levator Anguli Oris angle of mouth
N- Levator Anguli Oris facial N
A- Levator Anguli Oris elevates angle of mouth medially [disgust]
O- Levator Labii Superioris maxilla above infraorbital foramen
I- Levator Labii Superioris skin of upper lip
N- Levator Labii Superioris Facial N
A- Levator Labii Superioris elevates upper lip; dilates nares [disgust]
O- Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi frontal process of maxilla
I- Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi skin of upper lip
N- Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi facial N
A- Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi elevates ala of nose and upper lip
O- Zygomaticus minor zygomatic arch
I- Zygomaticus minor angle of mouthy
N- Zygomaticus minor facial N
A- Zygomaticus minor elevates upper lip
O- Depressor Labii Inferioris mandible below mentalforamen
I- Depressor Labii Inferioris orbicularis oris andskin oflower lip
N- Depressor Labii Inferioris facial N
A- Depressor Labii Inferioris depresses lower lip
O- Risorius fascia over masseter
I- Risorius angle of mouth
N- Risorius facial n
A- Risorius retracts angle of mouth [grimace]
O- Mentalis incisive fossa ofmandible
I- Mentalis skin of chin
N- Mentalis facial n
A- Mentalis e;evates and protrudes lower lip [doubt]
O- Anterior Auricularis temporal fascia;
I- Anterior Auricularis anterior side of auricle
N- Anterior Auricularis facial n
A- Anterior Auricularis retract and elvate ear
O- Inferior Constrictor arch of cricoids and oblique line of thyroid cartilage
I- Inferior Constrictor median raphe of pharynx
N- Inferior Constrictor Vagus N via pharyngeal plexus; recurrent and external laryngeal N
A- Inferior Constrictor Constricts lower pharynx
What major nerves are on either side of the sella turcica? V1 and V2 of trigeminal, abducens, trochlear
What is the trigeminal cave? 2 layers of dura mater that encase the trigeminal ganglion near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone [either side of sella turcica] ; it forms the cavernous sinus
If there is an infection or thrombosis in cavernous sinus which nerve is most affected? abducens
Define the bony boundaries of the posterior cranial fossa. occiptial bone to basilar portion of occiput
Which CN are int eh posterior cranial fossa? facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal; also the vertebral A is located there
What clinical factor does the Circle of Willis help with? help prevent brainaneurisms
Where is the Circle of Willis located? around the sella turcica
What AA make up the circle of willis? posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, anterior cerebral, anterior communicating and internal carotid
What do you get when the 2 layers of dura split? a venous sinus
What are the 2 layers of dura? periosteal layer [closest to skull cap or outer layer] and fibrous layer or meningeal layer which contains large blood vesesels
Which A supplies the dura? middle meningeal
What fills the arachnoid matter? CSF
What drains the subarachnoid space into the superior sagittal sapce? arachnoid granulations
IF the dura attaches to the skull cap or changes direction what do you get? venous sinus
Which sinus drains into the internal jugular V? sigmoid sinus
What are foveolae granulae? divets in skull cap caused by arachnoid granulations
Where does the inferior petrosal sinus drain? internal jugular V
If you have an infection around the eye what is the risk? risk the infection going through the facial V to the cavernous sinus and causing an infection in the bran
Which plexus can an infection around the nose get to the cavernous pelxus through? pterygoid pelxus
What is the epidural space? above the dura
What is the subdural space? outside the arachnoid but below the dura
What causes a subdural hematoma? usually teraing from bridging veins; traumatic brain injury
What is an epidural hematoma? build up of blood between dura and skull
What causes a subarchnoid hemorrhage? usually caused by an aneurism between the arachnoid and pia mater
What is the difference between hematoma and hamorrhage? hemorrhage is blood loss versus hematoma is blood pooling
Which is worse, when the skull is crushed in or when there is a bump? In is bad, out is not so bad
What could have occurred if someone can not smell? may have a fracture to cribriform plate
What are symptoms of lesions of the olfactory nerves? a history of trauma, food tastes funny, nose is running [CSF]
Your Medial visual field is projected where in the eye? on the lateral surface [temporal retinal field
Your peripheral visual field is projected where? medial surface of eye [nasal retinal field]
What crosses in the optic chiasm? nasal retinal projections or your peripheral visual field
What would you find in your left optic tract? left medial visual field and right peripheral field
IF you cut the optic chiasm what would you not be able to see? peripheral field
If you cut the left optic nerve what would you not be able to see? anything from the left field
If you cut the left optic tract what would you not be able to see? the left medial visual field and right peripheral field
What is amaurosis fugax? temporarily blind in one eye for a couple seconds. Means a stroke is about to happen
What is left hemianopia? loss of half of the visual field in both eyes on the same side ie. Left peripheral in left eye and left medial in right eye
What is bitemporal hemianopia? And how cause? cut through the optic chiasm causing loss of periphery in both eyes.
What type of N fibers does CN 1 have? Special Senseory Afferent- SVA- special sense in association of gastrointestinal tract [smell, taste]
What type of N fibers does CN 2 have? Special Sensory Afferent- SSA, special sense from organs developing in ectoderm of embryo (vision, hearing)
What type of N fibers does CN 3 have? General Motor and Parasympathetic motor- GSE, GVE- visceral efferent [pupil constirction] and somatic efferent [eye movement]
What type of N fibers does CN 4 have? GSE- somatic efferent
What type of N fibers does CN 5 have? SVE and GSA- somatic afferent [pain, touch,temp] and somatic efferent [motor to skeletal muscles that develop in branchial arches of the embryo (pharynx, larynx, middle ear) ]
What type of N fibers does CN 6 have? GSE- somatic efferent
What type of N fibers does CN 7 have? SVE, GVE, SVA, GVA, GSA- special [tongue] and general sensory [ear] , general efferent [MM of face], and parasympathetic [visceral] efferent [lacrimal and salivary secretion]
What type of N fibers does CN 8 have? SSA- special sensory somatic afferent
What type of N fibers does CN 9 have? SVE, GVE, SVA, GVA, GSA- special [taste] and general sensory [pharynx, tongue] , general efferent [elevation of pharynx], and parasympathetic [visceral] efferent [salivary secretion]
What type of N fibers does CN 10 have? SVE, GVE, SVA, GVA, GSA- special [taste on epiglottis] & general sensory [auricle and external acoustic meatus] , general efferent [MM of pharynx and larynx and palate], and parasympathetic [visceral] efferent [smooth Mm and lgands in thorax and abdomine]
What type of N fibers does CN 11 have? SVE- visceral effferent [spinal cord]
What type of N fibers does CN 12 have? GSE- somatic efferent [tongue MM]
What is GSE - - General somatic efferent- motor to skeletal muscles
What is GVE -- General Visceral fferent- motor to heart muscle, smooth muscle, glands. In the cranial nerves, these impulses are part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
What is SVE -- Special Visceral Efferent- motor to skeletal muscles that develop in branchial arches of the embryo (pharynx, larynx, middle ear)
What is GSA -- General somatic Afferent- sensations of touch, pain, temperature
What is SSA -- Special Somatic Afferent- special sense from organs developing in ectoderm of embryo (vision, hearing)
What is GVA -- General Viscearl Afferent- sensory from sensory organs (heart, intestine)
What is SVA -- Special Visceral Afferent- special sense from organs developing in association of gastrointestinal tract (smell, taste)
Which N controls the lateral rectus M? CN 6 [abducens]
Which N controls the superior oblique M? CN 4 [Trochlear]
What controls all the MM of the eye besides LR and SO? Oculomotor, CN 3
What is damaged if a patient cannot look in with their eyes and the pupil is dialted [can't constrict]? oculomotor N [CN 3]
If patietn gets diplopia when looking down and out what is damaged? CN 4 [trochlear]
What does the superior oblique do? depresses and abducts the eye despite inserting on the top of the eye.
What does the lateral rectus M do? abducts the eye
What is damaged if patient gets diplopia from looking out? abducens N [lateral rectus M]
Pressure caused by inflammation of the cavernous sinus causes what? can ding abducens N which could be perceived as inability to abduct the ye
What could a rash to the tip of the nose be caused by? herpes zoster of the opthalmic N, very bad
What does portio major and portio minor of trigeminal mean? major portion or part and minor part [ie. Sensory = major and motor= minor]
Loss of M tone of MM of mastication on one side of the face can be casued by what? lesion of Tirgeminal
IF when opening the jaw , the mandible deviates to the right side, what is wrong? there is a lesion in the right trigeminal
What is another name for Tic de le Rue? Trigeminal Neuralgia
What is trigeminal neuralgia? stabbing pain along the tirgmenial nerve and this disorder often leads to suicide
What innevates the parotid gland? glossopharyngeal N
What innervates all the glands of the face except the parotid? facial N
If you had facial nerve palsy and a decrease in hearing what would this indicate? there is a tumor in the internal auditory meatus that is dinging both thte vestibulocochlear and facial N
What does facial nerve palsy with an incerase in sound indicate? simply a lesion to facial nerve or a tumor that is affecting only the facial N
What is virtigo? sensing the world is spinning
What is Menier's disease? Abnormalities in fluid; inner ear disorder affecting balance and hearing; semiciruclar canals become swollen
What is saccades? twitching eye movements
What is Nystagmus? involuntary eye movement
What is stabismis ? cross eyed, eyes can not properly align with each other, lack of coordination of extraocular MM
Created by: TJACKS11



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