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quiz 2 practice

chapter 2 and cells

96% of the human body is made up of these 4 elements Oxygen,nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen
thes subatomical particles carry a positive charge Protons
Define the Octet rule? can carry up to 8 electrons in the outer shell
describe an ionic bond transfer of electrons from one to another
covalent bond sharing of a pair of electrons
what is metabolism sum of all chemical reactions
what are the two types of meatbolism anabolism and catabolism
anabolism builds up molecules
catabolism breaks down molecules
what two componds do all cells in the body require in order to survive? glucose and oxygen
what compond do all cells release carbon dioxide
what are the 3 primary cations in the body? Na+, K+, CA2+
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
how many elements? 26 of the cannot be broken down
15 trace elements are how much percent in the body 2 percent
2 or more elements are a? compond
inside the nucleus are? protons and neutrons
Atomic number is the # of protons
Isotopes contain same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Radioactive isotopes an unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear break down and emits nuclear particles and raiation.
atoms do what when they have less than 8 electons? they bond, chemical reactions
chemical bond ionic bonds giving covalend bonds, sharing in same orbit
Na+ cation and Na- cation make? ionic bonds
hydrogen bonds are weak bond can break apart because not that many electrons
polar positive and negative pull
catabolism break down of molecules; gives out ATP
anabolism builds molecules up i.e.. bone fracture, consumes energy, steriods
water has polarity;ionizes substances;transportation of of materials; maintain temp; when you have a fever you lose fuild
pH per hydrogen atom; measures H+ concentration
lots of H+ is more acidic
1 on a pH scale is? highly acidic
14 on a pH scale is? highly basic/alkaline
blood is what pH 7.35 - 7.45
are blood is slightly what? alkaline
when you trow up u are losing acidic
when you have the runs you are losing base
acid any substance release hydrogen atoms into a acids- they are proton donars
base they are a proton acceptor
liquid carbon dioxide in the body is fluid except in the lungs
buffer is a compond solution that will maintain a stable pH
4 major molecules in the body carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acides
carbohydrates glucose, sugars
lipids fat
proteins enzymes are proteins
nucleic acids dna and rna
enzymes canaboic/anabolic reactions in the body
ASE is an enzyme
phospholipids are water loving they are hydrophilic
lipids are hydrohobic they fear water
immunoglobulin antibody
energy in the body is ATP manin molecule that gives us engergy
compound atoms of two or more elements joined to form chemical combinations
atoms contain protons, nuetrons, electons
atomic number identifies the kind of element
atomic weight is mass of a single atom, equal # of protons plus the # of neutrons.
total # of electons in an atom equals total # of protns in the nucelus
electons from a electron cloud around the nucleus
2 electons occupy the inner level
bohr model a model resembling planets revolving around the sun; useful in visualizing the structure of an atom
an atom without a full outermost energy level is? chemically active
an atom with 8 electrons or four pairs in the outer most energy level is chemically inert
number and arragement of electrons determine whether an atoms is chemically stable
attractions between atoms are chemical bond
chemical reactions interactions between two or more in their outer most energy levels
compound consists of molecules formed by atoms of two or more elements
chemical bonds two types unite atoms into molecules; ionic/ecectrovalent, bond; formed by transger of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and geatively charges ions together
hyrdogen bond weaker than ionic or covalent bonds; results from unequal charge distribution on molecules
hydrogen bonds form when electrons are unequally sharded; example is a water molecule
polar molecues have regoins with partial electrial charges resulting from unqueal sharing of electons in the atoms.
hydrolysis is a common catabolic reaction
end products of catabolism are carbon dioxide, water , and other waste products
more than half the engery released is transferred to? ATP
chemical reaction responsible for anabolism is dehydration synthesis
water is the body's most abundant and important compond
polarity allows water to act as an effective solvent, ionizes substance in soulution
the solvent allows transoportation of essential materials throughout the body
high specific heat makes water lose and gain large amounts of heat with little change in its own temperature;enables the body to maintain a realtively contant tmeperature
high heat of vaporization water requires the absorption of significant amounts of heat to change it from liquid to a gas; allows body to dispate heat.
oxygen and carbond dioxide closely related to cellular respiration
oxygen required to complete decomposition reactions necessary for the release of energy in the body
carbon dioxide produced as a waste product and helps maintain the appropriate acid-base balance in the body
electrolytes large group of inorganic compounds that includes acids, and bases ,and salts
cations are + charge
anions are - charge
bases electrolytes that sissociate to yield hydroxide ions OH or other elctrolytes that combine with H+
pH indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soulution
pH 7 is neutrally equal amounts of H and OH
Buffers minimize changes in the conventrations of H and OH; act as reservoir for hydrogen ions
salts compund that result from chemical interactions of an acid and a base
reactions between an acid and a base to form a salt and water is a called nuetralization reaction
organic describes compounds that contain C-C or C-H bonds
types of acids nitric acid hydrochloric acid, gastic fluid, lemon juice, vinegar, wine, oragne juice, coffee, milk
type of neutral is blood, distilled water
type of base is egg white, baking soda, milk of magnesia, oven cleaner, lye, caustic soda, sodium hydroide, and drain opener
carbohydrates organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; commonly called sugars and starches
monosaccharides simple sugars with short carbon chains
disaccharides and polysaccharides two or more simple sugars bonded together through a synthessi are reaction
lipids major roles enrgy source, structural role, integral parts of cell membranes
triglycerides or fats most abundant lipids and most conventrated source of energy
building blocks of trigycerides are glycerol and fatty acids
types of fatty acids saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids
triglycerides are formed by dehydration synthesis
organic molecules lipids
phospholipids fat compounds similar to triglyceride; one end of it is watersouluble the other end is fat souluble
phospholipids can join 2 different chemical enciroments
phospholipids may form double layers caleed bilayers that make up cell membranes
steroids main component is steroid nucleus;involved in man structural and fuctional roles
prostaglandin commonly called tissue hormones;produced by cell membranes thorughout the body
proteins most abundant organic compounds;chainlike polymers
amino acids are building blocks for? protiens
8 esential amino acids cannont be produced by the human body
nonessential amino acids 12 amino acids that can be produced from molecules available in the human body, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atomm and a side chain
immunoglobulin (antibody) plasma protein produced by certain white blood cells to combat abnormal or unwanted particles in the body.
collagen reinforces, connects tissues of the body
troponin triggers contractions of muscle fibers
chymotrypsin pancreatic enzyme thtat digest proteins in the digestice tract
dna polymerase enzyme in cells that allows the assembly of DNA strands
RNA( ribonucleic acid) composed of the pentose sugar(ribose), phosphate group, and nitrogen base
nitrogenous base for RNA adenine, uracil, guanine, or cytosine
some rna molecules are tomporary copies of segments of dna code and are involved in sythesizing proteins
some rna molecules are regulatory and act as enzymes or silence gene expression
ATP often called energy currency of cells
if ATP is depleted furing prolonged exercise creatine phosphate or ADP can be used for enegry
T or F compounds can be broken down or decomposed into the elements T, water is a compond and it can be broken down into oxygen and hydrogen atoms/elements
Each ring represents what? energy levels
radioisotope is during breakdown, radioactive isotopes emit nuclear particles and radiation - a process called decay.
what are the two types of chemical bonds? ionic/electrovalent and covalent bonds
ions can be what? positively or negatively charged ant that ion with opposite charges are attracted to each other
an ionic bond is? simply the strong electrostatic force that binds the positively and negatively charged ions together
covalent bonds that bind atoms together by sharing two pairs of electrons are called? double covalent bonds
ionic and covalent bonds form what? new molecules and hydrogen bonds do not
polar regions with different partial charges
3 basic types of chemical reactions are synthesis, decomposition, and exchange
synthesis is the formation of new bonds, and energy is required for the reaction to occur and the new product to form. A+B = AB
decomposition the breakdown of a complex substance into two or more simpler substances. AB = A+B+energy
exchange permits two different reactants to exchange componets and, as a result, form two new molecules AB+CD= AD+CB
functional groups are often used to? describe certain arrangements of atoms attached to the carbon core of many organic molecules
cytoplasm is the fluid in the cell
stomach is acidic or base? acidic
acid is any substance that will release a hydrogen ion when in a solution.
electrolytes are substances that break up, or dissociate, in soulution to form a charged particles, or ions.
pH stands for power of hydrogen
as the concentration of hyrogen ions increase, the pH goes? down
buffers minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions in our body fulids
neutralization reaction the reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water
any compound that results from the chemical interactions of an acid and a base is a salt
organic is used to describe the enormous number of compounds that contain carbon
carbohydrates are divided into three types or classes what are they? monosaccharides,disaccharies, polysaccharides
glucose stores? energy
ribose important in expression of hereditary info
triglycerides store energy
phospholipids make up cell membrane
steroids make up cell membranes hormone synthesis
Created by: antvill21