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Human Structure 1.5

What 2 types of tomes make of somite? sclerotome and ddermamyotome
What does sclerotome form? axial skeleton
What does dermatome make? dermis
What does myotome make? skeletal muscle
Where does appendicular skelton come from? lateral plate mesoderm
What is epaxial or Epimere? dorsal
What is hypaxial or hypomere? MM of body wall
When does the upper limb appear? Lower limb? mid 4th; end 4th
What roots does the upper limb form from? Lowe limb? C5-T1; and L1-S3
What does somatic mesoderm form? connective tissue and skeleton
During formation which direction does the upper limb rotate? Lower limb? laterally; medially
When does the cartilage model occur? 5-7 weeks
When does primary center of ossification begin? 7th week
When does secondary center of ossification begin? after birth
What is located on the distal end of the limb? Apical Ectodermal Ridge [AER]
What does the Apical Ectodermal Ridge do? produces growth factors causing proliferation
What induces the Apical Ectodermal Ridge? mesenchyme below it
Where does the limb begin to differentiate? proximally, but grows distally
When does proximal distal growth occur? 6-8 weeks
How does digit formation occur? lose Apical Ectodermal Ridge between the digits and instead BMPs, retinoic acid receptor B, and Msx-1 are expressed in the interdigital mesodermal cells
What is syndactyly? cell death does not occur ininterdigital zone
What Hox mutation causes syndactly? HoxD13
What is polydactyly? additional digits
What regulates the Apical Ectodermal Ridge? Fgf and Wnt signaling and the underlying mesenchyme; Hox genes also affect temporal and spatial development in proximal-distal growth
What is phocomelia? What could cause? distal portion of limb attached to trunk; thalidolide
What is amelia? no limbs
What is meromelia? What could cause? partial absense of limb; thalidolide or amniotic bands
What is cleft hand? lobsesr-claw hand, congenital disorder in which development of hand is disturbed
What induces sonic hedge hog? retinoic acid
What induces the zone of polarizing activity? Retinoic Acid and SHH
Where is the zone of polarizing activity? posterior margin of limb bud and regulates cranial-caudal growth; it determines the little finger
What kind of relationship does SHH and retinoic acid have? synergistic
What regualtes dorsal ventral axis? Lmx1b from dorsal mesenchyme regulates Wnt7a which is expressedned in dorsal ectoderm.
What is Nail Patella Syndrome? mutation in LMX1B so there is no dorsal side of hand or knee
What is the region of future joints? interzonal mesenchyme which is avascular mesenchyme between adjacent skeletal elements. It will develop into articular cartilage and gives rise to menisci, joints, synovial cavities
What is somitic mesoderm? formed from paraxial mesoderm and later forms ALL skeletal Muscle
If you have LMX1B what side do you get? dorsal
what is mesenchyme? loose connective tissue derived mostly from mesoderm
The anterior division of the trunks contributes to which muscle mass? ventral muscle mass; flexor/adductor
The posterior division of the trunks contributes to which muscle mass? dorsal muscle mass; extensor/abductor
Hox genes help in what kind of limb development? temporal and spatial expression
What are 2 Mutations due to growth restictions? Club Foot- Abnormal intrauterine position causes defomity of talus of ankle; Simian Crease- Growth restiction in utero e.g. twins
When a preganglionic neuron synapses on the adrenal emdulla, what is released? epinephrine and norepinephrine
What part of the NS is the adrenal medulla in? sympathetic
Where does parasympathetic system go? never reaches limbs or body wall except for external genitalia
Where does the sympathetic system go? everywhere becasuse of vascular smooth muscle
Name some places where sypathetic innervate? adrenal medulla, sweat glands in skin, arrector MM of hair, ALL vascular smooth M, organs of head, neck, trunk, and external genitalia
What is Vasomotor tone or sympathetic tone? is a baseline firing frequency; constant level of nervous stimulation; resting level of contraction
What happens if you increase sympathetic tone firing frequency? vasoconstriction
What happens ifyou decrease sympathetic tone firing frequency? vasodialtion
Colorectal cancer risks damage to what which would cause what? pelvic splanchnics at risk; damage to bladder and secual dysfunction
What is referred pain? pain originiatng ina visceral structure but perceived as being from an area of skin innervated by the same segmental level as the visceral fferent; due to cross talk in spinal cord
What is the primary controller of the autonomic nervous system? hypothalamus
What does the limbic system control? emotions
What does the brain stem control? unconscious things; blood presure, pupil, swallowing
What does spinal cord control? erection, ejaculation, urination, defication
What is Raynaud's disease? constriction of blood vessels, provoked by cold and stress, causes to have very cold hands;; hyperstimulation of sympathetics; exageration of vasomotor response
What can cause high blood pressure? hypertension- overactive sypathetic causing vasoconstriction
What is achalasia of the cardia? defect in the autonomic innervation fo the esophagus; defect in innervation of sphincter; not able to relax the sphincter and not able to move food down into the stomach; difficulty swallowing, regurgitation, chest pain
Created by: TJACKS11



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